Skip to main content

Full text of "AE Raghavan V Sangita Literature 0176"

See other formats


Title and Author 


Journal 


pdf. 
p.no. 


Some Names in Early Sangita Literature by 
V.Raghavan 


Journal of the Music Academy 
Madras, 1932. Pt.l &2. 


2 


Some More Names in Early Sangita Literature 
by V.Raghavan 


Journal of the Music Academy 
Madras, 1932. Pt.l & 2. 


24 


Some Names in Early Sangita Literature - 
contd. 

by V.Raghavan 


Journal of the Music Academy 
Madras, 1932. Pt.l & 2. 


33 


Some Names in Early Sangita Literature - Ptl 
by V.Raghavan 


Sangeet Natak Bulletin 1956, 
December, No. 5 


34 


Some Names in Early Sangita Literature - Pt2 
by V.Raghavan 


Sangeet Natak Bulletin 1957, 
May, No.6 


44 


Some Names in Later Sangita Literature - Ptl 
by V.Raghavan 


Sangeet Natak Bulletin 1960, 
July, No. 17 


52 


Some Names in Later Sangita Literature - Pt2 
by V.Raghavan 


Sangeet Natak Bulletin 1961, 
April, No. 18 


76 


An Outline Literary History of Indian Music 
by V.Raghavan 


Journal of the Music Academy 
Madras, 1952, Vol.23 


94 



SOME NAMES IN EARLY SANG1TA LITERATURE.* ^ 

BY 

Mr. V, Raghavan, B.A. (Hons), 
Research Student in Sanskrit— The University of Madras, 



The proper scope of this paper of mine is 
early Sangita literature. It does not propose 
to go into the Vedic period and the Sama- 
pratisakhyas nor to treat of the later litera- 
ture i.e. roughly after the time of Sarnga- 
deva, the author of the Sangita Ratn&kara 
viz., the beginning of the 13th century. 
There is a rationale in this classification of 
mine of the periods of Sangita literature- 
The early^ literature is Sangita literature 
dealing with dance besides music, vocal and 
instrumental. 

*ff^ mix ^ spfcrg^r^ i 

So the works of the earlier period treat of 
dance and drama also. Some are predomi- 
nantly Natya worlts, by the way, treating of 
Sangita at length. For instance, the 
Bharata Sastra on Natya t a work on drama 
and dance devotes 6 of its 36 chapters to 
music. Narada's Sangita Makaranda, the 
Sangita Ratnakara etc. are works primarily on 
Sangita and they contain chapters on Natya 
also. As a contrast to this early period JJT the 
later is only Gita literature. This classifica- 
tion proceeds on the general rule* taking full 
cognisance of the presence of exceptions. For 
instance the Tala dipika quoted by Abhinava- 
gupta is a work ^f the early period but res- 
tricts Hself to a * branch of music. In the 
later period* when the rield was filled with 
digests or treatises on particular branches of 
music, we have such Natya works as the 
Vasanta Rajiya Natya Sastra of King Kuma- 
ragiri, which lost work must have dealt with 
music also. Jagaddhara's Sangita Sarvasva 
quoted by him in his commentary cm King 
Bhojas Sarasvati Kanthabharana^ p. 467, is a 



work of the later period but deals with Natya 
besides music, as the quotation given there 
shows. The Sangita Ratnakara of Sarnga* 
deva is the boundary line roughly, since it is 
the last comprehensive work, comprising 
within its scope all branches of music and in 
addition, Natya also. 

A history of the Sanskrit music literature 
is not in the field. A history of early Sangita 
literature is attempted here with the 
evidences supplied mainly by the great com- 
mentary of Acarya Abhinavaguptapada on 
the Natya Sastra, Saradatanaya s Bhava- 
prakasa etc. Even this does not propose 
to be a history but only a notice of some 
names in early Sangita literature. Some 
such thing is being attempted and pub- 
lished serially in the Journal of the Music 
Academy. A general survey, with dogmatic 
assertions and mystifying identifications has 
already been made by Mr. Ramakrishna Kavi. 
This paper does not restate what is contained 
in Mr. R. Kavi's published paper. It proposes 
to be more definite and critical and attempts, 
with citation of authorities, as far as avail- 
able, to ascertain the definite nature and date 
of many works and authors. Especially as 
regards the authors and works known from 
Abhinavaguptas Abhinava Bharati, This 
paper has much that is not contained in 
Mr. R. Kavis paper. The scope of this paper 
is more restricted and the treatment is 
more intense on many points. 

BHARATAS NATYA SASTRA. 

The only early work which is completely 
available to us is the Bharata Natya Sastra. 
Its'upper limit is fixed at the 2nd century B.C. 



-*A paper read before tbe Madras Music Conference, December 1931, 



42 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 



It treats of music in chapters 28-33. Scholars 
are exercising all their industry and in- 
genuity with regard to the real laistorical fact 
about a sage Bharata, Mr. Manamohaii 
Ghose, the latest writer on the subject, sug- 
gests in the Indian Historical Quarterly, that 



Bharata was a common name meaning ^,000 slokas and that portions of 



works that the Bharata Natya Sastra is an epi~ 
tome perhaps of the 5Pf*rcn*^ft- Abhinava 
himself speaks of 3 Snstras, of Sadasiva, Br ah- 
man and Bharata, the Natya trinity found in 
the story of the origin of Natya. Mr. Kavi in- 
forms us that there is also a Natya Veda of 

* the 



'actor' at first, that we had Nata Sutras 
and Bharata Sufrasandthat latterly, a mytho- 
logy of a sage Bharata and origin of Natya 
were created out of the common name 
Bharata. Tha present text of Bharata Sastra 
contains Attushtubh& T Aryas and long prese 
paragraphs and occasionally here and there 
Sutra-like prose bits. Some of the Aryas and 
AnushtubhS) in chapters 6 and 7 on Rasa, are 
introduced as those existing before, with the 

words snna^rl ^fi^ w^rp i swg^ 

STpf H^T! 1 ^5W>ri I One of the Anush- 
tubhs herein quoted is attributed to Vasuki in 
the Bhavaprakasa by Saradatanaya {pp. 36 
and 37), In the 5t*rf£renT> chapters 28-33, it 



Sadasiva, and Brahrqa Bbaratas are avai~ 
lable now. There is no denying the fact of 
big works on Nfttya and Sangila existing^as 
works of Sadfisivaand Brahman. The Dasaru- 
pa- contains verses of Sadasiva, while the 
Bhavaprakasa quotes opinions of both Sada* 
siva an;d Brahman, It is likely that the extant 
N&tyaS&stra of Bharata is one that has 
incorporated into itself many portions of 
earlier Bharata Sastras. 

Similarly it has also incorporated into itself 
portions of later works. The present text is- 
later than Kohala and even Dattila. These 
two writers are included in the list of the 
100 sons of Bharata whom he taught. The 



is only in the 32nd and 33rd, that we find ad- inclusion of Tandu here does not help us 



ditional prose and verses introduced thus — 
4 M$SHM ^ The last chapter on -TrSirSFnT 

says that the rest will be dealt with by Kohala. 
The last portion is called Nandi Bharata in 
the Kavya Mala edition. Besides, from Ra- 
ghava Bhatta's commentary on the Sakun- 
tala, we know of an Adi Bharata* and a 
Bharata* verses attributed to these two, some 
of them being found, some found only as 
parallels and some not found at all in the 
Natya Sastra. We hear of a Bharata Vrddha 
from Saradatanaya, who attributes to him a 
prose passage on Rasa 7 which is found in the 
present Bharata SOstra only in its parallel 
Further the Natya Sastra seems to have been 
called and NA^TS^jft and there is a tra- 
dition recorded in Bhavaprakasa and Other 



much, Kohala* is referred to twice in the 
last chapter- In the second reference he is 

made to come along with 'J^ 55 (^fwSF?) 
and some other sages to earth', to live as mor- 
tals for sometime for the sake of King Nahusha 
to write and popularise the Drama on earth. 
After King Nahusha brought Natya from 
heaven to earth, Brahman says that the 
^TC?r^ will be written by Kohala. This 
makes the Bharatiya Natya Sastra the 
fj^cF^T. There is no evidence to prove that 
Kohala's work is called ^tP^F; His work 
must have been bigger than Bharata s and as 
we know from references, he elaborated many 
atopic, as for instance, the many Uparupakas w 
That part of Kohala's work,— stray bits here 
and there— got into the text of Bharata 



* In the annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute. Dec. 32. there is a note on Adi Bharata with 
reference to the article of Mr t M. Ghase in the Historic Quarterly. The manuscript called Adi Bha- 
rata existing in the Mysore Library, believed by many to be the Adi. Bharata quoted by Eaghava 
Bhatta has been examined in that article and found to be x>nly a copy of the available Bharatiya Natya Sastra. 



SOME NAMES IN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE 



13 



cannot be disputed. For, in commenting 
upon the tenth verse in chap. 6— giving the 
summary of the topics in the Natyasastm as 
eleven— Udbhata is referred to by Abhimva- 
gupta as saying that this verse is from Kohala 
and is not part of Bharata's text, for Bharata 
recognises only 5 Angas or toptcs in the 
NOtya Sastra, Again in the Dasarupa chapter 
we find more treatment than is promised, 
the Natika being described after Nataka and 
Prakarana, though it is not one of the 
Dasarupakas, Kohala is very well known as 
the first to have introduced, with definitions, 
Uparupakas and the Natika here, is perhaps 
from Kohala, though there is no conclusive 
evidence to take it so. 

The ^STCtf story is very, late. We 
find Mr. R. Kavi speaking much of it. There 
is nothing to support* it in the Natya Sastra, 
which gives a list of 100 Bharatas, sons of 
sage Bharata. Of these 100 sons, we are 
familiar with Kohala, Dattila and Tandu. 
The list is a hopeless one, containing such 
names as Sandals and Shoes, *JT^t<TT^K^ 
The origin of the IffW^ theory is not traced* 
Saradatanaya, in chap. 3i first considers the 
name 'Bharata' only as actor. The 3<**RM<1 
here given is Siva-Nandin-Brakman and the 
Bharatas, actors and not Bharata, a sage. 
But at the end Saradatanaya contradicts 
himself by saying that Narada taught Bharata 
and BhaTata wrote the T^ftc^f^ as he Jieard 
it from Narada. But this kind of ^TTrtrf^r 
is not recorded in the extant Natya Sastra. 
Saradatanaya gives this same parampara 
in chap. 10, changing the 'Bharatas^ actors, 
into one sage with 5 pupils. 

" ^jjcrar^r aft* ^fe^ <wftr- - 



*T=55i^Tsfa *raHf *rsrr ^ttRt Trfir^T^r ti 

Bha. Pra, X. 

This passage refers to one sage with 5 pupils, 
who were the first recipients of the Natya 
Veda and whom Brahman called Bharatas. 
This same verse is quoted by Mr. R. Kavi to 
prove the Pan ca Bharatas, As a matter of 
fact the first verse above given proves not 5 
Bharatas, but,l + 5 i-e- 6 Bharatas, Again, 
all these were called Bharatas because, 
according to the ingenious derivation 
Saradatanaya gives here, viz, STCcT, ' you bear 
or hold or preserve the Natya Veda \ (impe^ 
rative of ^ to bear) Bharatas were so 
addressed by Brahman. (Vide verses quoted 
above.) This also proves the theory that the 
name Bharata as a sage is a later myth and 
that Bharatas at first meant only actors. But 
it is rather strange how actors could have 
been known as Bharatas. Saradatanaya^ 
explanation is farfetched. The still later and 
most popular derivation^ explaining Bharata 
as an epitome of the first letters of *TR, tT*T 

and is equally far-fetched, 

-i 

Mr. Ramakrishna Kavi adduces further evi- 
dence from Tamil literature, from Adiyarkku 
Nallar's commentary on the Silappadikaram. 
This also is wrong evidence, Adiyarkku Nallar 
does mention the name Tanca Bhdratiyam/ 
but mentions it not as a collection of five 
works on' Natya by five different writers, but 
as one single work by one author, the author 
of it being Deva Rishi Narada. When thus the 
evidences adduced mean something else and 
the theory of five Bharatas in early Natya 
literature falls to the ground, it is futile to 
imaginatively suppose and suggest that Kohala 
is the second Bharata, another, the third and 
so on, as Mr. R. Kavi does, The exact import 
of the word 1 Panca Bharatiyam ' in Adiyav- 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 



14. «■ 

kk „nallar means something else. It refers to 
a custom of dividing the » b J~ / 
into five heads or sections. Another TamU 
Natya work, Pane* Uarabu. referred*to by the 
LeAdiy,rkmiall*r,isalso one such which 
treats of W«y m «ve section* The five 
sections may be the five of M»>» 

referred to by Abhinava as Bharata s view,- 
he five Anlas being the three Abhmaya. 
and the two kinds of music, vocal and instru- 
mental, pp. 265. Chap. VI, Gaek. Ed. 

Another point to be investigated in the his- 
tory of early Nfitya literature .s the part 
pllJedbykingNahushainit. The last chapter 
l t the available Natya Sdstra gives king 
Nahusha the credit of bringing from heaven to 
earth the beautiful lore of Noty* In Sarada- 
Zw*s Bhavapratasa, in the tenth chapter, 
' Stakes the place of king Nahusha. Mann 
as king, feels tired in his doty and Surya his 
fathers him to go to Brahman who has got 
the Mtya Veda from Siva. Brahman «nt 
six Bharatas along with Manu to Ayodhya to 
reU eve him now and then with the ^entertain- 
me nt of Drama, Dance and Mus.£ The 
Bharatas then multiplied on earth , they 
. ► one in 12,000 slokas, and 

wrote treaties, one in * ► 
another, an epitome of the former m 6,000 
slokas After the names of those who possess 
and exhibit it, the Sastra itself is called 
Bharata Sastra. 
r Coming to the many, names ^ 

likelihood is that, as in the case of SiiLwva 
and Brahman, the names were only of epouy- 
m0 us authors; but there were definitely works 
on Natyiand music current as theirs. This 
we shalfW as we take up such names, 
one by one. 

KASYAPA. 
This sage is referred to by Sarngadeva 
■ as one of the authorities on music. He 

# I mentioned in Narada's Sangita Makaranda 

* (p 13) Matanga's Brhaddesi refers to him 



seven times. The Abhinava Bharat. of Abhi- 
nava Gupta contains two references to 
this sage, in Vol. IV of the Madras ms. The 
first reference is a quotation from the Tika- 
Kara on the Nutya Sastra who quotes m his 
Tika one and a half Anushtubhs of Kasyapa, 
■ dea^ig about the ^ ^s. (Le ) the 
particular tunes appropriate to each Rasa. 

;.«j*f*£3 fFrfwmsW n . 

Vol. IV. Mad. ms, p. 5. 

The second reference to Kasyapa given by 
Abhinava Gupta is on the same page, on the 
same topic. 

(*r«rqrof^) f^ra^ 1 ' 

And Abhinava gives eight pages of Anush- 
tubhs on the particular tunes to be ^ used 
according to the various Rasas and Bhavas. 
This is either a quotation or a compilation 
made by Abhinava himself from Kasyapa 
and other writers, for he says at the end 

An earlier reference is available in chapter 
five. t ^ 

Kasyapa or Kasyapa dealt with Drama 
wAAlanklira also elaborately since he is 
s0 referred to by Hrdayangama, a commen- 
tary on the KavySdarsa of Dandin. 

BRHAT KASYAPA. 
Besides Kasyapa, there is yet another call- 
ed Brhat Kasyapa, an early writer on music. 
There are two references to him m the work 
of King NSnyadeva, pp. 111-b and 11+a; 
Manuscript of the Bhandarkar Oriental Insti- 
tut Thus there are two works on music by 



SOME NAMES IN kARLY ! 

sage Kasyapa, one being Laghu Kasyapa 
and another Brhat Kasyapa, the latter being 
similar to Brhat Desi> 

NANDIKESVARA or NANDIN. 

The place of Nandin in the mythological 
origin of the Natya Sastra is by the side of 
Siva himself. The latter portion of the 
Bharata Natya Sastra in the Kavya Mala 
edition is called Nandi Bharata. Works 
attributed to him are many. There is a 
music work called Nandi Bharata, noticed by 
Rice in Mysore and Coorg Catalogue, The 
Madras Catalogue has a *rf^*xTH> 
<J*<44*tlWW* and another work called 
WCm^f^[*T with a Telugu Tika, described 
as a dialogue between Nan dikes vara and 
Farvati. 

From the manuscript of the Bharatar- 
nava in the Tanjore library we see that 
this is the 10th chapter in Nandikesvara's 
Bharatarnava. 

The Tanjore library has a work called : 
cTT5J5^W attributed to Nandikesvara, 
Most of the works attributed to him treat 
more of Natya than Sangita. In Rajasekha- 
ras Kavya Mimamsa, in his account of the 
origin of the Sahitya Siistra, Nandikesvara is 
mentioned as "the first writer on Rasa. So it 
is likely that the name Nandikesvara is not 
important in music as much as in Dance, 
Drama and Rasa* 

One of his major works was not available 
to Abbinavagupta, Abhinava, while quoting 
him, says that be is reproducing Nandikes- 
vara *s views, exactly as quoted by Kirtidliara- 
carya, only on the authority of Kirtidhara 
and that he himself never saw the work of 
Nandikesvara, 



3ANGITA LITERATURE 13 

VoL IV f p. 50- 

Then Abhinava 'gives, as given by 
Kirtidhara, large prose extracts from 
Nandikesvara on pp. 51—54, on the 
sratn of OT*Tfcnfer> dances in the *£t*W' 
Though one such work of Nandikesvara 
which was available to Kirtidhara was not 
available to Aljhinava, another work called 
sr f^g fr was available to Abhinava and he 
quotes it. 

*' SWT srf^JPT ^ — 

F, 171, Gaek Ed, 

The assumption of the identity of 
Nandikesvara with Tandu made by Mr- R. 
Kavi is quite wrong. As above proved, the 
legend of Panca Bharata has no evidence. 
There is no meaning in idle guesses or assump- 
tions that Nandin or Tandu or Kohala or 
Kasyapa is one of the five Bharatas. Inci- 
dentally we will deal with the name Tandu 
also. Tandu is mentioned in the Natya 
Sfistra as one of the 100 sons of Bharata, 
to whom Bharata taught his Natya. But 
latterly he is made to belong to the camp of 
Siva, and through Tandu, who was a witness 
of Siva's evening dances, Siva passes the 
Tandava dances to Sage Bharata, Abhinava 
quotes Kohala (p. 182, Gaek Ed,) who says that 
when Siva was dancing, Narada propitiated 
him by singing the ftpJtraiTOj Siva danced 
according to Niirada's song; this Tanda^a, as 
part of Natya, Siva gave to Tandu who 
passed it to others. In connection with 
Tand^va there is also mention of one 
Tandya. Thus it is very difficult to hazard 
any such thing as Mr, R, Kavi has done, 
, as regards the name Tandu. Whether Tandu K 



16 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY. 



m fjfst existed is a question, Jt is most likely 
that Tandava first existed and to create a 
beautiful story for its origin, grammar was 
resorted to and T:indu was, latterly, gramma- 
tically extracted out of the word Tandava, 
which word itself was long a ^fi? among the 
Natas, even as and other tf^ls- 

* Kohalas Sangita Merit as quoted extensively 
by Kallinatha, in the *r^n^Tf3\ refers to 
one Bhatta Tandu five times. The' affix 
' Bhatta ' to the name Tandu makes him 
less mythological and more historical. 
Whether another historical writer with the 
name Bhatta Tandu existed is not yet known. 

Nandikesvaras very popular work is the 
Abhinaya Darpana* It is available in print, 
being printed in Telugu characters by Nida- 
mangalam Tiruvenkatacari and "subsequently 
translated into English by A, K, Coomara- 
swamy and Duggarilal The compiler of the 
Bliarata Rasa Prakarana printed along with it 
was Sabhapati Ayyar, a Brahmin Bharata- 
carya of the Tanjore Court, a Bhagavatar 
who finally settled at Mannargudi and taught 
his art to some. This Abhinaya Darpana 
is fitted into the style of a dialogue between 
Indra and Nandin. Nandin says that there 
is a big work called *TCd|are ' ocean of the 
Bharata art \ in 4,000 slokas and that the 
Abhinaya Darpana itself is its summary. We 
often hear of the early Natya works of 12,000 
and 6,000 verses. But this work of 4,000 verses 
is new. There is a work called WSfpfca' 
available in the Madras and Tanjore Manus- 
cript libraries. Three copies of this ST^F*^ 
with Telugu Tika are available in the Madras 
Ms& Library. Cat. Vol. XXII. nos, 13006-8. 
These mss* have in their colophons an epithet 
' ti^ft*cter ' to the name ^FSTPn^T- The 
significance of this epithet is known only 
from the Tanjore Library Mss. of the 
Bharatamava. It is called there as gjtaPTOf 
which is a mistake for ?J?fNt*TCT- Sumati 



is the king of the semi-divine beings called 
5J5R»saijd the work Bharat&ntava is in the 
style of Nandin, teaching the Natya lore to 
this* Guhyakesa called Sumati. From the 
colophon to chap. 10 of this work in the 
Tanjore library, we come to know of 
another work called ? the Hasta- 

hhjnaya section of which is utilised by Nandi- 
kesvara. From chapter 13, \ve also see that 
there is a work on Natya m the name of sage 
Yajnavalkya. 

" w& njTffT sr**Tf *nw«Wt *Tgr?ift: \ * 
qr^i^W TOr^fc I " 

Chapter 13, deals with the seven kinds of 
Lasya, which perhaps were dealt with elabo- 
rately in a work attributed to sage Y aj naval- 
kya. 

NARADA. 

Abhinava refers to Narada in Vol. 11. p. 100 

with regard to the etymology and meaning 

g 

of the word IT^R' 

Dattila earlier than Matanga, who 
quotes him, quotes Narada, Matanga also 
quotes Narada. We have at least two Nara- 
das one, the author of the Siksha- and the 
other, the author of the Sangita Makaranda 
published in the Gaekwad series. Scholars 
opine that the Narada referred to as holding 
the TlTqHilltf: is the author of the Sangita- 
Makaranda which has that STHT- This is 
to show the genuineness of the Sangita Ma- 
karanda as a work of Narada. The Sangita 
Makaranda, on p. 13, gives the names of a 
number of writers- The reference to Matrgupta 
here definitely puts the date of the Sangita 
Makaranda alter the 7th century. Vikrama 
is another noteworthy, but unidentifiable 
name quoted here. Two names whom we 



SOME NAMES IN EARLY 

miss in thrust are Kohala and Dattila, The 
Tanjore Library has a work attributed to 
Narada, called ^TfHl ^« tKPTfa^Tir I 
KOHALA. 

It is from Kallinatha that we have the 
greatest glimpse into Kohala* In the 
*f^nTCTTO of the Sangita Ratnakara, in his 
commentary, Kalliniitba gives the additional 
^7*3?MTs from 9?t?^- From here we learn 
these facts about Kohala s work— i. Kohala s 
work is called Sangita Meru, ii, It is in 
dialogue style, like the Bharata Sastra, a 
dialogue between Sage SSrdula and Kohala, 
the tatter replying to the former s queries, iii. 
It is in Anushtubh verses* iv. Its first part 
treated of Natya and the latter part only of 
Sangita. The work was thus in the style of 
the ancient works, in dialogue style and divi- 
ded into Ahnikas. The extracts from Kohala 
given by Kallinatha quote these names: 

W£tT*$> ^tf^TC, *TTK^ (author of the 
Siksba), (God Siva), ff?^ 

wr, and sytf^ras^- 

These references are absolutely confusing, 
The names *T?T*5, W**& and 
5rtfS5nPT5^ look quite historical. Kirtidhara- 
is later than Nandikesvaras work. But the 
reference to Matanga is hopeless for Matanga 
himself quotes Kohala. Matanga's Brhaddesi 
further quotes Dattila, who himself quotes 
Kohala, The onljt possible conclusion is: 
We know Kohala to be a very early writer 
whose name is by the side of Bharata. The 
last chapter of Bharata Natya Sastra contains 
a promise that the rest will be done by Kohala. 
Though there is yet little authority feLmake 
out Kohala as one of the 5 Bharatas whom 
Brahman instructed (as Mr, R. Kavi has made 
out), there is no denying that Kohala was a 
very early writer. A music work called 
1 rTRJ^pil ' is attributed to him in Aufrecht s 
catalogue. The Madras Catalogue contains 



SANGITA LITERATURE 17 

a Kohaliya Abkinaya S&stra with a Telugu 
commentary* A Dattila- Kohaliya noticed by 
Dr. Burn ell, was once available in the 
Tanjore Library, Rajasekhara s Drama Bala 
Ramiiyana lifts his name out of the historical 
sphere. These show— i, Kohala was an old 
and convenient name to which later writers 
could ascribe their own works, ii. There was 
a very early work of Kohala* iii. The San- 
gita Meru itself may not be actually this first 
work of Kohala but may be an elaborated one 
of some later time foisted on the name of 
Kohala* But the Sangita Meru may be that 
well known work of Kohala which Abhinava 
quotes often. 

Abhinavagupta refers to Kohala very often 
both in the HlMlf^FfH* and in the SfarTf^KT?:* 
The name Kohala is as great in the history of 
Drama and Dramaturgy as it is in that of 
Music, The Sangita Meru must be a very 
voluminous and valuable work. In Dramaturgy 
and Rhetoric, Kohala is always quoted even 
by later writers as the writer who first 
introduced the Upa rupakas, minor types of 
Dramas, Totaka, Sattaka etc. In the Madras 
Mss, Library there are some fragments 
described as extracts from Kohala s works. 
Thus we have and 
dl<**»g rqT? Nos. 12989 and 12992* Cat. Vol. 
XXII, There is also a work called <*)%ta<44<it 
available in this library— Triennial 1910-11 
to 1912-13. Only the 13th chapter is availa-^ 
ble. It is set in dialogue style, Kohala 
replying to Matanga. 

DATTILA, 
Dattila is often Dantila also. He is often 
coupled with Kohala and the reason is t not 
known. Dattila is a very early writer whom, 
especially in the 5WTfin>P% Abhinava quotes 
very frequently, more often than even Kohala, 
He is referred to as ^Rrar^W and from the 
references we may infer that Dattila s work 
was in Anushtubhs like Kohala 's and Bharata T s. 



18 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 



1 jDattilam * published now in the Trivan- 
drum series is only a very late fragmen- 
tary selection or condensation of the early 
original and big work of Dattila, which is not 
yet available, Dattila's work must, have, like 
other early works, dealt with Dance and 
Dramaturgy. It must have been big. The 
Trivandrum text of Dattilam is very poorly 
small even as regards Music- It has no' 
section on Drama and Dance, There is no 
denying the fact that Dattilas work, 
treated of *n^J also. 

The Trivandrum Ed, of Datttlam quotes 
Narada, Kohala and Visakhila, Even as 
regards the original Dattila, it may be only 
later to Kohala, 

There are two copies of a work called 
TT*raf*rc in the Madras Mss, bibrary (Cat. 
Vol. XXII Nos. 13014 and 13015) in 3 Taran- 
gas, n*Tfe*rer, ^frr^tmfa+JW and *FT- 
EflTrfsrar^. The last Taranga gives the Rshi 
Chandas and Dhyana of each Raga. The 
colophon of this work describes it as a 
dialogue between Narada and Dattila. 

ANJANEYA. 

If we can expect a 5Tr|^ and an 3T^cFr; 
asSangita Acaryas, why not Arijaneya? Asa 
matter of fact, evidences of Anjaneya having 
had some work on Natya and Music to his 
credit, are more than those available for 
many others of his class. Sarngadeva and 
Narada enumerate him in their lists. On 
p. 251, Gaek. ed., defining and describing the 
Rupaka called ^jf^i**, Saradatanaya 
quotes in his Bhavaprakasa, Anjaneya along 

with ^rra- 

Chap, VIII, 



Again as Martiti, he is quoted by Sarada- 
tanaya on p, 114, 1. 19 in Chap V. From the 
first given reference we can make out that 
Anjaneya s work dealt with Dramaturgy at 
length. From the other reference in the Bha- 
vaprakasa we see that this ft^w^lft^O 
work dealt elaborately with %fsra* also, 
even as Bharata's. As regards the signs by 
whlc^h another man's wife shows her love to 
her secret lover, Saradatanaya quotes WF^f^i 
who says that such signs or indicatory Bhavas 
are common to all women, t 

That Arijaneya s work dealt with music also 
is plain, Kallinatha quotes him on p. 218, 
Chap. 2 on Desi Ragas :— 

*I*TT ^feTW<i4 TIM I I f^f^WTt *T I 

Sangita Darpana of D&modara, a later work 
which quotes Sarngadeva and Kallinatha, 
quotes Anjaneya twice. The first reference 
is a general praise on Nada. 

Again in the enumeration of Ragas and their 
consorts^ Raginis— he is quoted asHanuman, 
This reference makes Hanuman's work as 
expounding the northern system which alone 
has the scheme of Raga-Raginis. We also 
hear of a work on Natya called ^^^in- 
Ahobala, in his Sangita Parijata refers to 
and bases his definitions often on Ha- 
numan. 

SARDULA. 

Sarngadeva's and Narada's lists contain 
the name of Sardula, In the latter *s list 
there is also another name ^TT5& which is only 



^ SOME NAMES IN EARLY 

a synonym of SITf<55. Similarly there are 2 
references under two different synonyms to 
Vishnu and Indra, in the Sangita Makaranda. 
Sarngadeva couples with *t«^ 

Neither Abhinavagupta nor Sarngadeva nor 
Kallinatha refers to any opinion of Sardula, 
It is thus very likely that Sardula finds a 
place among Sangita Acaryas because he is 
the questioner to whom Kohala's Sangita 
Meru is addressed as reply. The Brhaddesi 
however has two references to Sardula inde- 
pendently* 

DURGASAKTL 
Durgasakti is referred to as by 
Matanga, It is likely he is a historical perso- 
nage. Besides mentioning him in his list of 
authorities at the beginning, Sarngadeva re- 
fers to him along with Kasyapa on p. 182 S.R. 

YASHTIKA, 
Sarngadeva mentions Yashtika as an 
authority on music in his list, M atari ga 
quotes him seven times, Nanyadeva quotes 
him once. From the latter fact we can take 
that there was some definite work on music 
current as Yashtika s. The fact gains addi- 
tional support from a reference to him given 
by Kallinatha on p. 228 in Chapter 2. 

KAMBALA and ASVATARA. 
These two are always associates and are 
two figures in the mythological pantheon 
of Sangita Acary^S. Sarngadeva mentions 
these two as authorities on music and again 
quotes them in Chapter I, p. 78 as holding 
some definite opinion, different from that of 
Bharata* This reference proves that some 
music work was extant as theirs, buFrieeoSnot 
prove that that work was available to Sarn- 
gadeva, who might have referred to their view 
from references in the works of earlier Writers. 
We do not hear of these two anywhere else 
in the works of the early period but have 
some information about them in Damodara s 



SANGITA LITERATURE 19 

Sangita Darpana. These two are not "Wool" 
and '* Ass" but '* Snakes", They propitiated 
Sarasvati, got the *TT^f*NT and became the 
ear-ornaments, ^S^s of God Siva, a post 
from which they could be pouring their music 
into the ears of God. 

Kambala and Asvatara are mentioned as two 
Nagas, serpents, in the Jist of Nagas in Chap- 
ter 35, Adipjirva, M. Bha. 1 %^551W?T^ 
^rrfa HHI* <ET5frrereraT 1 : SI. 10, The 
Markandeya Purana gives their story in 
Chapter 21. 

MATANGA. 
Abhinava quotes sage Matanga only twice— 
pp. 59 and 67 Vol IV, Mad Ms, Since quota- 
tions from his work given by other writers 
are found here, we may take the Trivandrum 
Ed. of Matanga's Brhaddesi as genuine 
though it is incomplete, Matanga quotes ; 

Kasyapa, Kobala, Dattiia, Durgasakti, 
Nandikesvara, Narada, Brahman, Bharata, 
Mahesvara, Yashtika, Vallabha, Visvavasu 
and Sardula. 

Of these names Vallabha must be noted. 
We do not hear of this Sangitacarya, Val- 
labha elsewhere* 

From a reference in Kallinatha, on p. 82, 
we see that Matanga quotes Rudrata, who 
flourished in the first quarter of the 9th cen- 
tury. Hence the Brhaddesi is later than the 
9th century. 

Damodaragupta, in his Kuttanimata makes 
Matanga a specialist in Flute, 

SI. 854, 

The Brhaddesi must have been famous 
for the excellence of its gf^TBfPt and this 
has resulted in a story of Sangita, that 
Matanga propitiated Siva by singing on the 



20 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 



Fluie. Abhinava mentions this story in the 
^ft^pamr Vol. IV, p. 58. 

%gf^ (?) 5Rft *ET ^ ?%Si I ,? 

The Vadyadhyaya of Brhaddesi itself 
seems to have been held in high esteem. 
Jayasimha, (C. 1253 A. D.) in his work on - 
Natya called Nrtta Ratnavali (Tanjore 
Library) mentions the ^TOT^TFT of Matan- 
ga's Brhaddesi. 

V1SAKHILA. 

Abhinavagupta quotes Visakhilacarya six 
times in his commentary on the Geyadhl- 
kara. His work was earlier to that of Dattila 
who quotes him. 

VAYU. 

Vayu is given in the lists of Sarngadeva 
and Narada. We hare no other information 
about him in any other authoritative work. 
His must certainly be a prominent niche in the 
temple of the Sangitacaryas for, as wind that 
sings through the atmosphere and the trees, 
as the carrier of music, as the STTGRTg 
which creates ^ and as air playing in the 
holes of the Flute, certainly Vayu's part is 
very great in any myth of the origin of San- 
gitaSastra. It is also likely that the name 
Vayu refers to the Vayupurana which says 
something of music. 

VISVAVASU. 

Visvavasu is merely enumerated by Sarn- 
gadeva* Matanga attributes to him some 
opinion in his Brh. Desi, on pp. 4. Singa Bhupa- 
la, in his commentary on the Svaradhyaya of 
the Sangita Ratnakara quotes a passage from 
Visvavasu. It may be that there is a work in 
his name, Visvavasu is the name of one of the 
Gandharvas who are, as a class, musicians 
and as a Gandharva at least, he enters the 
list. The name of Tumburu is similar. He is 



not only a Gandharva but is often associated 
with Narada also and hence has a double 
title to enter the list. 

RAMBHA and ARJUNA. 
* Rambha is a mere name now, no work 
in her name being available. As an 
Apsaras and exponent of Natya in heaven, 
she^as a sure place ir the list, Arjuna's 
name is also found in the lists; His meeting 
with Rambha in heaven and his sojourn at 
Viratas's court as Brhannala, a tutor of dance, 
have sufficient cause for the possibility of * 
some later writer ascribing a work of his to 
the Qa'me of Arjuna. There is a work called 
Arjtina Bharata available in the Tanjore 
Sarasvati Mahal Library. 

RAVANA. 

Ravana s name is associated with Sama 
gana and with a particular kind of Veena. 
Rajasekhara's drama, Bala Ramayana makes 
Kohala praise Ravana as having had the 
fortune of enjoying God Siva himself perform 
Natya. So far, we have not landed on any 
evidence of quotation to show that, in fact, 
there is a work in trie name of Ravana even 
as the many Stotras current in his name. 

Guna is another name in Narada s list, 
which is a mere name, no further light upon 
him being available. So are also these 
following names found in Narada's list: — 

Two Maris, Visvakarman, Hariscandra^ 
Kamalasyaka (may be Brahman) Candi 
(probably only Devi) Angada {who must 
naturally go with Anjaneya) Shanmitkha and 
Brngi (these 2 because of their being the 
audience at Siva's dance) Kubera (as 
he is a friend of Siva according to Puranas), 
sage Kusika, Samudra, Sarasvati (because 
she is the Goddess of all BalL 
YahsJut, and Kinnaresa (because Kinnaras 
are described in the Kavyas and Puranas as 
singing with instruments). 



SOME NAMES IN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE 



21 



But two names in Narada s list must be 
noted, besides that of JTT*5?JH, viz., ^3* 
and Efavff - This Vikrama is not quoted 
elsewhere and it is difficult to fix the Sangita- 
carya Vikrama among the many Vikramas 
in Indian History. The other, Samudra is 
certainly not the ocean, but, as regards him, 
no other evidence is available* 

SVATI. 

Of Svati mentioned in Sarngadeva's list t 
some light is available. It is not likely he has 
any work to his credit but still belongs to the 
pantheon of Sangitacaryas. Bharata says 
in Chapter 1, that on the occasion of the first 
drama in Indra s flag festival, he took Svati 
and Narada with him— Svati, for *i|U«felTO 
(drum) and Narada, for music, 

^rf^iHt55 «si^w wJmrtr smsrfe: n 

Abhinavagupta here says in his commen- 
tary that Svati was responsible for the inven- 
tion of the drum called S 1 ^* Svati is a 
constellation associated with rain and is 
also a RshL Abhinava exercises his imagi- 
nation with the aid of the descriptions in 
Kavyas and connects the deep rumblings 
of the clouds with the sounds produced 
on the Pushkara and thus makes Svati, to 
whose charge Bharata gave the drum, 
VTIVYCTV, as the founder of the g*^- 

Abhi, Bharati. p, 23, Gaek. ed- 

The story of this invention of and 
also the other ^*Tfl[s by Rshi Svati on a 
rainy day is told by Bharata himself in the 



g^PCTWr^T, Chapter 33, Kasi ed. Sis, 5-12. 
Abhinava only summarsies in prose the verses 
there* 

KAMADBVA. 
Though the name of Cupid is not found in 
the lists of the various Naiya and Sangita- 
ovryas, we have evidence to show that some 
work on Natya Sastra was current in his 
name. There is a work called ciiws^H in 
the Madras Mss* Library (Cat. Vol XXII 
No. 12993), which quotes Kamadeva, 

^grt Niew^g 1 " 

This Tala-lakshana is a late work and it quotes 
Saradatanaya's Bhavaprakasa, 

DHENUKA. 
Damodargupta says in his Kuttanimata : 

SI 82. 



From this verse we come to know that there is 
one Dhenuka who has specially written on 
Tala, Who this Dhenuka is and what his 
work is, are not known. Nor is he mentioned 
elsewhere, 

DAKSHA PRAJAPATL 
* 

Simha Bhupala, in his commentary on the 
Svaradhyaya of the Sangita Ratnakara 
quotes Daksha PrajaPati, who is no mere 
name, but in whose name must have been 
current an important work. 

i 



22 THE JOURNAL OF Tl 

UTPALA DBVA. 
We now come to writers and works re* 
garding whose verity there is little doubt. 
From Abhinayagupta 1 's Abhinava Bharati, we 
learn that Abhinavas own Paramaguru i.e. 
preceptor's preceptor, in Saivism, Srimad 
Utpaladeva wrote also on Sangita. Otherwise- 
there is no indication of his having written 
on music. But we can surely rely on the 
Jlf^F^'s evidence and take Utpaladeva as an 
early writer on Sangita, Abhinava quotes ^ 
him four times in his Abhinava Bharati. The 
first quotation is in the ^fRSE^TFT* Chap 29. 

^thtt g (?) srrar i 

Vol. IV. p. 2L Mad.Ms, of Abhinava Bharati. 

The second reference is in the same chapter 
on the next page of this Vol — 

n 

The third reference is in Chap. 31, page 84 
of Vol. IV. Here also Abhinava differs from 
his grand-teacher. 

The fourth reference to Utpaladeva is on 
p. 188, Vol. IV, 

From this last quotation we may infer that 
Utpala's music work was writ ten in Anustubhs . 
Utpaladeva's date is easily fixed, His srftrW, 
3TreT$ ^r^T^cl^HMH flourished at the end of 
the 10th and the beginning of the 11th 
centuries, 

ACARYA ABHINAVA GUPTA. 
We must separately deal with the commen- 
tators on the Natya Sastra. The only com- 



:e music academy, 

>■ 

mentator whose work has been recovered 
is Abhinavagupta. Even Jus Abhinava 
Bharati is available in the Madras Ms. only 
.up to a part of the rrrSTT^TFT and there 
is some lacuna in the seventh chapter- The 
8th is also missing. The Abhinava Bharati, 
ncw^ being slowly and very badly edited by 
Mr. R. Kavi, in the Gaekwad series, is a store 
house of information, giving us material to 
construct a history of early Sangita litera- 
ture, Abhinava s life was a full and very rich, 
one. His place in thp history of Kasmir Sai- 
vism -is as great as that of Sri Sankara in 
Advaita literature. His importance in Alan- 
karay *. e., poetics, is also as gr6at. He studied 
the Natya Sastra under * the good brahmin ' 
Tota, Bhatta Tota or Touta, the author of 
Kavya Kautuka, an Aiankara work upon which 
also Abhinavagupta has commented. Tota was 
scholar in Natya and Music and Abhinava 
often refers to his interpretations of the text 
of the Natya Sastra, in the TPTrf^J^TTT also as 
Upadhyayas mata. Besides Touta, one 
Nrsimhagupta alias Mukhala (Cukhala) was 
the preceptor in music to Abhinavagupta, 
He mentions this music teacher in two verses 
at the end of chapters 20 and 27, 

Since Abhinava refers to Bhatta Touta in his 
Abhinava Bharati invariably as Upadhy&ya 
only, one or two references to one Acarya 
available in the ^t^rf^fW^ may be taken to 
represent reference to the interpretations of 
this music teacher N rsimfiagupta. Who is 
this Nrsimhagupta ? He is Abhinava s own 



^ SOME NAMES IN EARLY 

father- This we know from an anonymous 
commentary on Abhinava s Saiva work called 
l^^f^f^pfWt (R. No, 4353 p. 6399 
Mad. Cat. Triennial, 1922-23 to 1924-25).-Vide 
my article in the Journal of Oriental Research, 
Madras, Vol. VI, part 2 t on the writersquoted 
in the Abhinava Bharati* 

* KIRTIDHARA. 
The other commentators on the Ndtya 
Sastra as given by Sdrngadeva are Lollata, 
Udbhata, Sankuka and Kirtidhara. Though 
mentioned last in Sarngadevas list, if it is a 
fact that his work was a regular commentary 
on the Bharata Ndtya Sdstra, Kirtidhara was 
the first known commentator. Abhinava 
quotes him four times. The first reference is 
in Chap, 4, in the discussion on the difference 
between and S TT£*J T p. 208 Gaek. ed. The 
other 3 references to Kirtidhardcarya are in 
the Sfcrrf^rarTT, the music section of the Ndtya 
SOstra. The first of these occurs in the 
d l r*fM T F T Vol, IV, p. 42, The next is found 
on p. 50, in the same Vol. The last reference 
to him is on the group-dances to be performed 
in the Purva Ranga. Abhinava says here that 
he is going to give additional information 
from Nandikesvara, on the authority of Kirti- 
dhara t who quotes Nandikesvara. 

f^T (?) cT^ST (^JTT) fa: * ft, rTW- 

Then Abhinava gives on pp. 51-54 large prose 
extracts from Nandikesvara as given by 
Kirtidhara. 

The Sangita Merit of Kohala, in the^ctracts 
given by Katlinat ha therefrom, quotes Kirti- 
dhara p. 677. So Kirtidhara is earlier than 
the Sangita Mem. 

UDBHATA, LOLLATA and SANKUKA. 
It is now accepted by all scholars that the 
great Alankdrika, Udbhata wrote a regular 



SANGITA LITERATURE 23 

commentary on the Ndtya Sastra. Abhinava 
refers to his interpretations and views four 
times at distant intervals in his Abhinava 
BhdratL Firstly he refers to the followers of 
Udbhata in Chap, 6, on the Ndtya Angas {p, 
265 Gaek, Ed.). Then in Chap. 9, Vol. II, p. 
307 Mad, Ms, Abhinava quotes Bhatta Ud- 
bhata on *TrTH7' The third reference is on 
p. 472, Vol. II. The fourth reference to Ud- 
bhata is on p. 479 Vol II, in the Chapter on 
This reference shows that Udbhata 
recognised only -3 Vrttis, and even those 3, of 
a different nature from Kaisiki etc. There is 
another reference which does not mention 
him but presupposes him and his view of the 
Vrttis Vol. Ill, p. 4, ^\ 

Here in the first reference, as well as in 
the fourth, Abhinava first gives Udbhata 's 
opinion and then Lollata 's refutation of 
Udbhata s view. One of the two references to 
Udbhata in Rajasekharas Kdvyamimdmsd 
also is of the same nature. Thus Udbhata 
was the earlier commentator and Lollata 
and Sankuka came afterwards. Udbhata 
was the Court poet of King Jayapida of 
Kasmir, 778-813 A.D. 

As regards Bhatta, Lollata and Sankuka t 
there is no doubt of the fact of their having 
written commentaries on the Ndtya Sastra 
for, references to their interpretations of 
particular texts in Bharata are profuse all 
over the Abhinava Bharati. Lollata flourished, 
about 825 A.D. and Sankuka a little later, 
about 850 A.D. 

SRI HARSHA'S VARTTIKA, 

Besides these direct commentaries, the 
Natya S&stra had two other commentaries, 
one Vdrttika and one Ttkd. Abhinavagupta 
quotes often Sri Marsha and his Vdrttika in 
the Bret 6 chapters. Altogether there are 
8 quotations from Sri Harsha 1 s Vdrttika. The 
quotations are mostly in Arya verses and 
. occasionally in prose also. Thus the Vdrttika 



24" 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 

.as mainly in AryOs and occasionally in BHATTA S«/JTA^ 

prose SOradaianaya in his Bhavaprakasa This writer is quoted in the 32nd Utiapte , 

also refers to Harsha and his definition of in the *r«ynair*, Vol. IV. p. 32. S ince the 

the Upa Rupaka called Totaka (p. 238-1. 5.). reference occurs in the TpTTT^RnT, Bhatta 

This Sri Harsha is not the Royal dramatist Sumanas milst be the author of some music 

and patron of poet Bana, since in a re- w . The reference given by Abhinava- 

* * ** * " r_ t „ u:^ ; n to,-f,«»t!itinn of a verse in 



tkl^U pawvii v» J — 

ference in the W^^Tt to the music 
verse of King Sri Harsha, found in two of hi* 
dramas, Abhinava does not refer to him as the 
Varttikakara. It is strange how Abhinava 
who quotes Harsha so often in the .first 6 
chapters never quotes him in the later chap- 
ters on Dance and Drama proper and Music. 
Perhaps Sri Marsha's Varttika was available 
even to Abhinavagupta only in a fragment 
at the beginning. 

The TIKAKARA. 

The name of the author of the Tika on the 
Natya S&stra is not available. Beginning ia 
the 22nd chapter, the references to him in the 
Abhinava Bharati (mostly in the SmTTO- 
SXt) number 17. Earlier also there are two 
references to him in Chap. VI. Abhinava- 
gupta quotes him only to refute him. 
It appears that the Tika Mra on the 
NOtya Sastra blundered 'hopelessly in the 
jlil l fatM T. All the 17 references to him 
are cases, in which Abhinava completely 
ridicules him. From one of the refer- 
ences we see that the Tiha -Kara quotes 
Kasyapa Vol IV, p. '2. The Tika 
Kara finds some discrepancy between 
Bharata and Kasyapa which Abhinava 
removes. In one reference to the Tika Kara, 
we find him quoting Sadasiva and there 
is mention of one «ffT*5 as the Guru of the 
Tika Kara. p. 25, Vol IV. 

Besides these commentators on Bharata's 
work which dealt with Dance and Music, 
there are some more names also whom we 
may take as writers on Natya and Music from 
Abhinavagupta's references. 



gup£ is to his interpretation of a verse in 
Bharata. Perhaps he commented on Bharata, 
or only on the$T*.fa*TC in Bharata or had 
occasion to quote and interpret a verse from ^ 
Bharata in an independent work of his. 

BHATTA VRDDHL 

This author also wrote some work on 
music. He is referred to in the rTfST^TTTi 
p. 203, Vol. IV. 

Besides, one Bhatta is quoted along with 
the above, dealt with Utpaladeva in the 
?TIS5T«IPT Vol. IV, p. 188. Another writer 
on music, one Datta is also quoted in the same 
Chapter on p. 203 along with Bhatta Vrddkt. 

GHANTAKA. 
VoetGhantaka is* quoted by Abhinava- 
gupta, but only on a topic in Dramaturgy. 
If however poet Ghantaka also was a com- 
mentator on Bharata, it follows that he was 
a writer on Music also. 

SAKALl GARBHA. 
From Abhinava Bharati Vol. II, p. 480, 
we come to know of a new writer on Natya 
named Sakaligarbha. He has a curious view 
of 5 Vrttis in dramas. His work on Natya 
mighthave dealt with music also-undoubted- 
ly so, if he is a commentator on Bharata. 
RAHULA. 

Rahnla is an early writer on Music. Sar- 
ngadeva mentions him among his authorities, 
as Rahala. 

^ t Pt^u fr fr^TH: sr**T3Rsr \ 

Abhinava quotes him thrice, first on the diffe- 
rence between Natya and Nrtta in Chap. 4, 



SOME NAMES IN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE 



25 



p. 172 Gaek, ed., then on p. 197 of the same . 
edition and then in the 23rd Chap, on 
^%^,p.33, Vol. Ill, Mad. Ms. The third 
reference is reproduced in Abhinava's fai- 
thful follower Hemacandra's AlanUaravtoxk, 
Kavya n usas a na . 

Hemacandra K, A. S. ed, p, 316, 

^5TT l" Abhi. Bha, 

The context is aWP^rftpW and the Alan- 
karas of women WW» etc. Abhinava 
criticises Riihula fot holding TrW W% etc, 
also to be Alankaras, In the reference given 
above, Abhinava, in the text in Madras Ms,, 
refers to Rahula as Tit^r**^ It is likely that 
it is a scribal error for 5FPPTr^W, since we 
find it so in Hemacandra, who is always very 
useful in deciding the text of Abhinava's 
works. It is also likely that Rahula was spe- 
cially very proficient in *TRT in Natya and 
thus might have acquired the name *R*TT^T*T. 
He was a Buddhist. We had among Bud- 
dhists many such writers on such secular sub- 
jects* One Padrna Sri is known to us as a 
Buddhist monk who has written the porno- 
graphy work, called NCigara Sarvasva, from 
which we learn, in addition to what we know 
from the second reference to Rahula, that 
the Buddhistic Sampradaya on topics* of 
Alanhara etc., had their own deviations and 
peculiarities. Thus Rahula either commented 
on the Natya Sastra or wrote a big treatise 
itself like the Natya Sastra on Dance, Drama 
and Music, 
4 



BHATTA Y ANTRA. 

There is only one reference to Bhatta 
Yantra in the Abhinava Bharati and that too 
only on Dance, It is in chapter 4, p. 208, 
Gaek. Ed, on the difference between Natya 
and Nrtta* If he js a commentator on 
Bharata, to decide which sufficient evidence 
is not available, we have in him a writer on 
music also. 

RUDRATA. 
S&rngadeva mentions Rudrata as a San- 
gita Acarya. 

Confirmation of his having written a work 
on music comes from a reference to him by 
Abhinavagupta. Abhinava criticises Rudrata 
as having written without understanding 
Bharata. x 

I " p. 160, Vol IV, 

This Rudrata is the great Alankarika, author 
of the Kavyalanha'ra whom some scholars 
identify with Rudra or Rudra Bhatta, author 
ot another Alankara work called Srnga- 
ratilaktz. Rudrata is placed between the 
first half of the 9th century and its end. 
He is thus a contemporary of king 
Avanti Varmanrof Kasmir and the great 
Alankarika Anandavardhana. Rudrata is 
quoted by Kallinatha, once independently 
and again, as being quoted by Matanga. 

S. R. p- 82. 

Mr. Kavi, as usual, without evidence or 
authority postulates the identity of this 
Rudrata with Medhavi Rudra, another writer 



gg I THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 

on Alankara, which is wrong, and again both flT^ ^ !f^«W » 



of them with RudrScarya, protigee of King 
Mahendra Vikramapallava and author con- 
nected with the Kttdumiyatnalai music inscrip- 
tion. This triple equation is absolutely baseless. 
BHATTA GOP ALA. 
Abhinava refers to this writer on music 
twice. He first quotes him and his aiw^r 
ft*Tin Chap. 12 on p. 332. Vol. II, along 
with Bhntta Lollata. He promises here to 
come to the topic of in the TOTOIW 

and accordingly, in theWOTWT, he again- 
quotes Bhatta Gopala, who he says, has re- 
futed at length in his Tola D&ika the STSTT" 
cTTSyf^rfa of his predecessors. 

VoL II. p. 382. 

" «i<aTfe *f5*TtaTS5i ^ftisn^ar igs&fefa- 



Vol. II. p. 181. 

MATRGUPTA. 
Matrgupta is referred to by many writers 
and his Anustubh verses on subjects of Natya 
are found quoted in Ranganatha Diksita's 
commentary on the Vikramorvcsiya, and Ra- 
ghava Bhatta s commentary on the S&kuntala 
etc. His work should have been in Anustubhs, 
modelled after the Bharata Naiya Sastra tre- 
ating of music also. For the reference in 
Abhinava Bharati to Bhatta Matrgupta is in 
the WJ i mW , P. 32. Vol. IV. 

Sarngadeva mentions him as a Sangitd 
carya. 



The reference in Naradas Sangita Maka- 
mwfe p. 13, to one Matragupta is evide- 
ntly only to Matrgupta. 

Matrgupta lived in King Sri Harsas time, . 
609^647 A.D. He was a great poet and was 
latterly made King of Kasmir. 

PRIYATITHI. 
This is a very new name in Natya litera- ^ 
ture, which we are .given by the Abhinava ' 
Bharati. It quotes tnis writer on Ndiya on 
the subject of 'Saindhava', one of the ten 
Lasyftangas. 

^ar (or) t^tut =st «w i wtfc 3^11^ 

P. 537. Vol. II- 
Priyatithi wrote against Bharata's view 
and Abhinava criticises him for this. 

SURYA. 

On p. 95. Vol. HI, we find in the Abhi- 
nava Bharati — 

"^Tgfogr qm^qfa, (ar) 

' (Bharata 28. 2) 1ptT$ 1 " 
There is no improbability of Surya being 
one in the pantheon of Sangittlcaryas. The 
subject of the above refernce is the fourfold 
instrumental music. 

ASTA AGAMAS. 

[Eight basic texts.) 

The story of ' Five Bharatas ' has been pro- 
ved to have no evidence for it. But in the 
history of early Natya literature, there seems 
to have been a collection of eight Natya 
works, basic and authoritative, going by the 
name 3^ Abhinava refers to these 

STSPHTs on p. 227. Vol. IV. 

"g^gfsrmrr^ (?) stto^T I ^ 



SOME NAMES IN EAKLV SANGITA LITERATURE 



27 



What separate works constituted this 
* Authoritative Eight J is not known. 

KING BHOJA. 
About the time of Abhinavagupta ruled at 
Phara, the Paramara King, patron and proli- 
fic writer, Bhoja A,D. 1010—1055, Bhoja's li* 
terary period was a littie later than that of 
Abhinava. Sarngadeva enumerates Bhoja 
in his list and Saradatanaya quotes him often 
in music also along with Somesvara. We can 
believe that King Bhoja, master of all arts 
and sciences wrote on Sangita also but we 
cannot believe Mr. R> Kavi's calm news that 
Bhoja's Sangita work was called 
sraTTCT, which name is only a fancy, built on 
the analogy of the name of Bhoja s great 
Alankara work called Sringara Prakasa. Par- 
svadeva says that Bhoja gave the technical 
terms of music in the Bhandika vernacular in 
his work on music S. S. S, II* 1* 

SOMESVARA. 

This reference in Sarngadeva gives So mesa, 
Paramardi and lord of all worlds as a Sangita- 
carya. Saradatanaya in his Bhavaprakasa re-, 
fers to Somesvara along with Bhoja two 
times, Saradatanaya says that he is not ela- 
borating music since it has been already dealt 
with by Somes vara and others. The Sangita 
Samaya Sara of Par^vadeva, quotes him with 
Dattila, as having dealt with Tala and with 
Bhoja, as having given the technical terms 
of music in the Bhandika Bhaxa. This Bha~ 
ndikaBhasa is vernacular and very highly 
musical and a grammar of it is available in 
the Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal Library. In 
that grammar, a beautiful story of the origin 
of that vernacular is given. It is said that 
when Krishna danced the Rasa, along with 
the Gopis, from all parts of India, and when 
each sang in her own tongue, there arose, in 



that beautiful medley of tongues, the very 
musical language of the Bhandika, 

Who is this Somesvara who is cited as an 
authority on music? The Editor of the 
Bhavaprakasain the Gsekwtfd series, Mr. K. 
S. Ramaswamy Sastrigal discusses this 
question. In Sangita we know of two Some* 
svaras. One is the Calukya King Somes- 
vara III, who composed an encyclopaedic 
work called Matuisollasa or the Abhilasita- 
rtha Cintamani, in the year 1131 A.D. This 
big work, part of which lias been published 
from Mysore and Baroda, is said to contain 
a very big section on Music. This portion, 
when published, will light up our field very 
much. It is very likely that it is this Some- 
svara whom Sarngadeva and others mention. 

Another Somesvara is known as the author 
of a music work called Sangita Rataavalu 
Some identify Sarngadeva's Somesvara with 
this Somesvara* 

BHATTA SOMA C ARAN A. 

But all are agreed that Somesvara is a 
King and Ksatriya. If so, we had another 
writer on Music called Soma or Bhatta Soma 
Carana, a Brahmin. The learned Ranga- 
, natb-A Aiksita, in his commentary on the 
Vikramorvasiya, Act IV*, quotes him after 
quoting Matanga, on the STEWf or the 5Wff- 
f^pf ififif, P. 89, Nirnaya Sagar Edition. 



KING PARAMARDL 

This word is taken by some as an attribute 
of the above-dealt with King Somesvara, 
q^fl^ff ^TTiftTT 5T^f7JT5T<Tf^l* Mr. K. S* 

Ramaswarny Sastri takes Paramardi as a 
separate name, as a different writer on Music, 
identifiable with a King of that name of the 
Candel Dynasty, a scholar and patron, who 
reigned* between 1165—1203 A.D, This view 
of K. S/ R. Sastry is justifiable, Parsvadeva 
in his Sangita Samaya Sara (on .p. 24, Tri, 



28 THE JOURNAL OF 1 

Edn) quotes one King Paramardi, in 

• the ^erraW ie. Chapter 4, 

" ^ ^ ^TT^ s^t^T I 

3TWt*T: ^f^R^T ^fff^W^aSTJ II " SI. 6. 

Nothing more is known of King Paramardi 
or his work on Music. 

* * 
MANY A BHUPALA, 

Through the kindness of my professor, I got 
the manuscript of the work of Nanyadevafrom 
the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, Poona. The 
work is incomplete and is generally called in 
the colophons as Bharata Bhasya. But two 
of the colophons style it as Bharata Varttika, 
The work quotes Naradas Siksa and the 
author of the f^WTTtaTT on the •Ti^fcr- 
ftl^TT, Siksasof Panini and Apisali; Bha- 
rata, Matanga and his Brhaddesi, Tumburu, 
Kasyapa and Brhat Kasyapa, Visakhila, Yasti- 
ka, Dattila and Abhinavagupta, Two names 
among the writers quoted must be noted. 
They are Sages 3TT^fN> and 3^*, of whom 
we do not hear elsewhere* References to these 
two are on p, 64a, The Kalika Purana is re- 
ferred to by Nahyadeva on page 132a, as 
containing the treatment of the gita called 

The Colophon has sometimes this sugges- 
tive word— 6 ^Tf*reT$f\ From this we come to 
know that Nanyadeva's work is very big and 
divided into four sections according to the 
four Abhinayas— ^Tf^^j ^^1^7, ^Ttf?^ 
and The first section— Ansa, called 

ft deals with SangUa. The portion dea- 
ling with Music alone, is available in the 
manuscript above referred to and even this 
runs to 221 sheets, 

Nanyadeva, as one mentioned by Sarnga- 
deva is earlier to Sarngadeva. Nanyadeva 
- was king of Mithila* He calls himself by the 



IE MUSIC ACADEMY 

name ffff^iSTC and 3?ram*cnf^fcr- He 

has another ntfmc also— Rajanarayana. 

" acrftstfo (fir) rtv ga*n qfafifa-mi i 

His work called Bharata Bhasya and Bha- 
rata Vartttka has another name — Sarasvati 
Hrdaya Bkusana or Sarasvati Hrdayalank- 
tfEtt or S. H, Alankara Hara > as described in 
the different colophons, 

Of Binda Raja and Ksetra Raja, two au- 
thorities enumerated by Sarngadeva we have t 
no further knowledge. Both look like his- 
torical personages, Kohala, as quoted by 
Kallinatha, quotes one %TTTT5T on the 
TOT ' called ^fer^f^Tur oh p. 688. If 
Ksetra Raja is the same as this Ksemaraja 
we may take him as a writer earlier to the 
Sangita Mem. 

Lohita Bhattaka and Sumantu are two more 
writers quoted by the Sangita Meru. They 
are certainly historical from what we see by 
their names, but further light on these two are 
not yet available. We know of Sumantu who 
was a sage, who is j?iven by the Maha Bhara- 
ta and Asvalayan a as one of the 5 ^Kdh 

^t4s, not S^rrai^s. He was one of those 
who edited the Maha Bharata after Vyasa. 
He is mentioned thus - 

^r?g ^ftrft ?Hs WWW I 

SARADATANAYA, 

Now let us come to the 3rd source of infor- 
mation, the Bhavaprakaxa of Saradatanaya : 
a work on Dramaturgy, ascribed to the 
period 1175—1250 A,D, 

Saradatanaya, if the above given date is 
correct, was living in Sarngadevas time, 
Saradatanaya was, as his name shobornws, 
of the grace of SarasvatL In the 7th chap. 



SOME NAMES IN EARLY SANG IT A LITERATURE 



29 



of his Bhavaprakasa he takes up Sangita and 
after elaborately telling lis of the physiologi- 
cal process of ^TT^Iclf^Tj just touches Music 
and leaves it saying that he need not deal with 
it further, since Bhoja, Somesvara and others 
have treated of it* From this same reference 
rn Chap, 7, we learn that Saradatanaya 
produced a companion work, certainly ear- 
lier, on Music called Saradiya. 

P. 194. 

Further, Saradatanaya refers to many 
other works and authors on Natya and 
Music, The following are noteworthy since 
they are not referred to elsewhere : jflftfiin, 
^n^^ftora': and 3^$%. 

GANDHARVA N1RNAYA.' 

The ^t^fafo. is a work on music, 
treating of Natya also by the way. Sarada- 
tanaya refers to it on p. 266 in chapter 9, in 
the description of the minor Rupaka variety 
known as ^T^^T, which is a *fRfsra?E[, an 
operatic composition, 

* *rm ^ir *ft?r s^a^r i 

The author of the Gandharva Nirnaya is 
not known. 

DRAUHINI, 

The quotation in the Bhavaprakasa in the 
name of Drauhini, on page 239, I. 1, is on 
Vrittis and Natalia. 

From this reference we can take him to 
be an author on Drama only* But Raja- 
sekbara in his Kavyaniimamsa quotes him 
twice and from the first quotation there, we 
can surely-make out Drauhini as an author 



on some music work. This reference makes 
Drauhini praise Music as the 5th Veda. 

?fa ^H^for: I " K. M. P. 2 Gaek, Ed 

Thus Drauhini's work,*Iike works of the 
early period, comprehensively dealt with 
Sangita proper, with its 3 departments. It is 
also likely that Drauhini is only Druhinas 
son, i.e. Narada. 

VASUKL 

Vasuki is a mythological name. Vasuki 
is quoted twjee by Saradatanaya. He is 
earlier to the Bharata Natya Sastra, if we 
rely upon a verse attributed to him by Sa- 
radatanaya, which is found quoted by 
Bharata, Vasuki is not enumerated by Sa- 
rngadeva or Narada nor is he quoted else- 
where. Narada's list however contains a 
name which, if it is taken in the mea- 

ning * snake \ may refer to Vasuki, but this is 
quite far-fetched. 

KALPAVALLI and YOGAMALA. 
The Kalpavalti or Kalpalata and the Yoga 
Mala Samhita quoted by Sarngadeva are 
definitely works on Natya but probably these 
two devoted some of their chapters to the Sa~ 
manatqntra (allied science) music also. The 
Yogamala Samhita seems to be a conversa- 
tion in which Siva teaches Natya etc., to Vi- 
vasvan ie. Surya. Surya seems to have some 
part in the history of Natya and Sangita. 
In the first chapter in the i,e* 
the 28th, on p, 95 of Vol- III Mad, Ms. the 
Abhi nava.Bharati of Abhinavagupta refers 
to Surya in connection with the four kinds 
of STTcrtST, instruments. 

" 5=rrgfsrw H<<UiN wroiRr, 'err fa) 

WAS A and AGASTYA. 

Saradatanaya mentions at the beginning 
of his work that he studied and learnt the 



THE JOUKtVU- OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 



30 

schools of the following writers on Natya— 
Sadasiva, Siva, Parvati, Gouri, Vasuki, Sara- 
svati, Narada, Kumbhodbhava i.e. Agastya, 
Vyasa, Bharatsa pupils and Anjaneya. Of 
these we have already dealt with Narada, 
Vasuki and Anjaneya. How Sadasiva and 
Siva and Parvati and Gouri are separate and 
different we are not able to understand. Vya- 
&t is quoted now and then by Saradata- - 
naya. There are two possibilities. S6me 
of the Puranas of which Vyasa is the gene- 
ral author contain chapters on" music.. Opi- 
nions quoted as Vyasa's may refer to opinions 
contained there. But such references are not 
traceable to the Sangita texts in the puranas. 
The story of the origin of Natya which 
Saradatanaya attributes to Vyasa, the exact 
number of acts in ^ft«tW, according to 
Vyasa referred to by Saradatanaya, are not 
traceable to the known puranas which deal 
with drama and music. The other possibility is 
that there was some work on Natya current 
as Vyasa's. Anyway Vyasa is not a mere 
name, since Saradatanaya attributes to him 
two definite opinions on pp. 55 and 251. 
The name of Agastya does not seem to 
appear anywhere else. As a matter of fact, 
in literature, Agastya is a rare name in San- 
skrit. It is only in Tamil that he is the 
eponymous father of all literature. Sarada- 
tanaya, as the editor of his work suggests, was 
thus likely a South Indian. But in the body 
of the Bhava Prakasa itself, no quotation 
from Agastya is found. 



PARSVADEVA. 

The Sangita Samaya Sara of Parsvadeva 
published in the Trivandrum Skr. series is a 
work of the early period. Mainly a work on 
music, it treats of dance in chapter six. Pa- 
rsvadeva,. as his name indicates, was a Jain. 
He and his father were great scholars of the 
Natya Sastrd. The upper limit of his date is 
• easily fixed. He quotes these authors— 



1, King Bhoja. 2. King Somesvara. 3. 
King Paramardi. 4. King Pratapa. 5. Di- 
gambara. 6. Matanga. .7. Sage Bharata 
and 8. Dattila. 

Of these, the references to Kings Bhoja, 
Somesvara and Paramardi are valuable and 
they fix the upper limit to Parsvadeva's time. 
King Bhoja ruled between 1010 and 1055 A.D. 
Pararnardi flourished about 1165 A.D. and 
Somesvara about 1131 A.D. Parsvadeva is 
thus later than the 12th century. Sarnga- 
deva does not refer to Parsvadeva. Singa 
Bhupaia (about 1330 A.D.) quotes him often • 
in his .commentary oh the Sangita Ratna- 
feffmv^Thus his date falls between 1165 and 
1330 A.D. A 

The manuscript of the Sangita Samaya 
Sara in the Madras Mss. library (No. 13028) 
gives much information about .the author 
Parsvadeva. Parsvadeva was the son of 
Gouri and Adideva and disciple of one **HL\- 
%ZT%, who was himself the pupil of &WrX*%- 
The paramaguru was thus a Jain and born of 
Brahmin parents, Parsvadeva was a con- 
vert to Jainism. Parsvadeva mentions in the 
beginning that he "consulted the following 
authorities: ^3*, *fRT, 

SEt**<T, *W and P5 ^ a " 

deva gives the name of his family as 
Knsjzzrq. The colophons mention the names 
of his guru and paramaguru and the titles of 
Parsvadeva. 

In the first verse in chapter 1, Parsvadeva 
says that he is going to follow Bhoja and 
Somesvara in giving the technical names of 
music in the Blurndika Bhasa. 

s. S. S. II. 1. 

We know of certain new writers for the 
first time from Parsvadeva. 



SOME NAMES IN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE 

KING PRATAPA. The PUR AN AS and MUSIC. 



31 



King Pratapa is quoted on p, 29, 

Though Pratapa and Vikrama are syno- 
nymous, it is vain to identify this Pratapa 
with the Vikrama quoted in the Sangita 
Makaranda. 

DIGAMBARA. 

Parsvadeva refers to Digambara or Di- 
gambara Suri thrice in the chapter on dance. 
The third reference is reverentially in plu- 
ral. Evidently Digambara Suri is a Jain 
and most probably a teacher of Parsvadeva. 
The three references are these — 

1. On the 3 kinds of ST^lT, a ^tI^^cT— 

I 

gT^r^nftrirg f^TrspsTcrtf^cr: n p. 60. 

2, j^N«l«*Hi<fr JtWt eft f^^TT^^UTT I 

P. 63, SL 89, 
P, 63, SL 93. 

Thus not" only in Philosophy and Poetics, 
but in such subjects as Drama, Dance, Music 
and Pornography*Uhe Buddhists' and Jams 
contributions to Sanskrit literature are im- 
mense, 

SANKARA. 

Parsvadeva quotes Sankara in 
TEin*T i.e. the fifth, p. 42, 

It may be that this Sankara is a historical 
writer on music, or only God Siva, 



As remarked above, references to Vyasa - 
may refer to chapters on music in some of 
the Puranas. The Puranas that contain 
chapters on music are — -the Visnudharmo- 
ttaram, the Vayit and the Markandeya. 

Of these the Markandeya does not regu- 
larly treat of music, In chapter 21, it gives 
the story of Asvatara the King of the ser- 
pents. He did penance and requested Sa- 
rasvati to give him his brother Kambala and 
to impart to him and his brother the music 
lore. Sarasvati did so. Asvatara and Ka- 
mbala propitiated Siva with this music. 
Here incidentally, in mentioning Sarasvati's 
boon, the topics in music learnt by the two 
Naga brothers are summarily given, 

* * * * 

Tftrnr^ rTOT WIT ^tT W^^TZ It 

# * * * 

Sis. 52-56. 

The VAYUPURANA. 

In the second Khanda of the Vayupnrana, 
chapt. 24, latter half and chapter 25 deal with 
music. The former speaks of seven Svaras, 
3 Gramas and the Ragas belonging to each 
Grama— 20 in JT^HmTIT, 14 in N^rii4W,and 
15 iir^iT^KriW, the etymology, devata and 
description of each Rvtga, and f^TT The 
25th chapter is devoted to 30 gita Alankaras. % 



32 THE JOURNAL OF T] 

The VISNUDHARMOTTARAM. 

The 3rd Khan da of the Visnudharmotta- 
ram contains a big art supplement treating 
of Grammar, Lexicography, Pros&dy, Poetics, . 
Dramaturgy, Dance, Sangita and Painting. 
Chapters 18 and 19 here deal with music. 
. In the beginning the matter corresponds to 
that in the Vayupurana, though in the Vi- 
snudliarmottaram it is all in Swim- like prose. 
The following are dealt with— 

Svaras, Gramas and the Ragas^ of jeuch of 
the 3 Gramas, -i Vrttis, STTT^, and 



E MUSIC ACADIiMY 

ST^qrf^, 9 Rasas and the Svaras for each 
Rasa, the 3 Layas and the Laya for each Rasa, 
10 Jatis, 4 Ahmkaras, JTOvTrf*, utiwd, ar * r ~ 
'sTT?!^, and sreTsnT^T, and the several kinds 
of songs viz, 3T7n??r*P, =3# c ^i VFf&i 

^m, ?raf^5, 5R«rror, Trforar, ^r- 

f%gcTT and EI?r»^tf5^'1^•. 

Here this chapter called 'ftcTS^fT'T ends. 
The next chapter dealing with music is 
devoted to 3JT?ft3T, instruments. * 



CARE OF VIOLIN AND BOW DURING THE SUMMER.* 

BY 

Edith L. Winn. 



Pupils of school age often let their violins 
go without special care in summer, A violm 
when not in use should be encased in an 
oiled silk bag or a silk scarf. The strings 
should always be wiped off after playing, and 
before playing, talcum powder should be 
used, if the hands perspire. 

The A string is most likely to break in 
summer. The strings should be tuned gently, 
and should sometimes be eased by being 
^ lowered before they are tuned up. This 
also loosens the pegs if they fit too tightly in 
their holes. Once loosened, the pegs may be 
turned up until the strings are at the desired 
pitch and then pushed firmly in their holes. 



If it sticks a tight peg may be tapped with 
a small hammer, on its protruding end. 

Watch the bridge constantly in summer. 
If it leans forward, gently press the top back 
with the thumb and fingers. Do not move the 
bridge from its base. 

The bow must always be slackened after 
playing. Use good resin. If the hair grows 
slippery the bow should be rehaired. Do not 
tighten the bow too much, A bent stick 
makes trouble* 

On damp days the violin shoold be shut 
tightly in the case. When the sun shines the 
case may remain open. The average instru- 
ment needs to be played on often to be kept 
in good condition .--From " The Etude/' 



Extracted from " The Musical Standard 



SOME MORE NAMES IN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE* 



BY 

Mr. \? Raghavan, b,a. (Hons). 
Research Studentrtn Sanskrit— The University of Madras* 



In the paper on Early Sangita Literature 
read by me in the Madras Music Conference 
l931 f a 1 had noticed rhe writers from Bhar- 
ata up to Sarngadeva* While preparing a 
paper on Later Sangita Literature, which I 
read before the Music Conference in Decem- 
ber 1932, 1 came across some new information 
bearing upon my previous paper and same 
new writers and works belonging to early 
literature. These I propose to give here as a 
supplement to my paper on " Some Names in 
early Sangita Literature."* 

Firstly— I had said in the previous article 
that Sanskrit Sangita Literature can be divid- 
ed into three periods, ancient, early and 
later. The ancient period covers works of 
the Vedic period like the Pratisakhyas and 
Sikshas. The early period, I had said, 
covered, up to the time of Sarngadeva, the 
literature beginning with Bharata and 
treating not only of music, vocal or instru- 
mental but also of dance and drama* I had 
said that the last work dealing comprehensi- 
vely with all the three branches of Sangita, 
viz. t Gita, Vadya and Nrtita is Sarngadeva s 
Sangita Ratnakara and that compared to the 
early literature, the later, after the time of 
Sarngadeva, is only Gita literature,dance and 
drama being left out slowly. This distinction 
between early and later Sanskrit Sangita 
literature has now got to be modified some- 
what. While studying the works after 
Sarngadeva s time, though I came across 
many works restricting themselves only to 
Gita or even to a smaller range viz. to Raga 
only, I found that there were innumerable 



works, still aware of the fact that Sangita 
meant Gita, Vadya, and Nritta and works that 
treated not only of Vadya but devoted 
one chapter or more to Nartana also. There- 
fore th^ distinction between early and later 
Sangkgf literature has thus to be modified. 
Pb^^the time of Bharata, Kokala and other 
ol(£ wijters, music was an accessory to drama, 
Graditally both vocal and instrumental music 
expressed their individuality and as we see 
now, they became independent of drama. 
So early literature of music is a chapter of 
Natya Sastra. Bharata, Kohala, Nandikes- 
vara and others are writers on Natya, whose 
works treated oi Drama, Dance andi&z&r and 
also contained chapters on music. . Latterly 
Natya became a chapter in the works on 
music, as we see in almost all the music 
works, at least after the time of Sarngadeva 
whose work was the model for later compila- 
tions/ Therefore it must now be stated that 
the boundary line between the early and 
later sangita literature is not to be found in 
Sarngadeva s time but some time very much 
earlier. The Sangita Ratnakara is not the 
last work of the early period as said in a 
previous article. Sarngadeva will however 
be temporarily taken by me as giving 
an artificial boundary for conveniently 
dividing the big subject of Sanskrit Sangita 
literature^ 

Anjaneya, Yashtika, * Dakshaprajapati, 
Matanga and Sardula* 

The first three writers have been noticed 
by me in the previous paper. They are 
separately credited with'.music works. But 



1 H Part of a paper read before the Madras Music Conference, 1932. 

2* Published" in the Journal of the Music Academy Madras: Vol, III. tfos. 1 and 3p 



SOME MORE NAMES IN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE 



95 



we find a legend recorded in Govinda 
Dikshitar s SangUa Sadha as regards these 
three writers which is as follows : 

* * * 

q^r^a^nft 11 

♦ ' ■* * 
fwrsrW* fe^Sr sr**Tf *rrcv ftretCT: 

Adayar Ms, 

Daksha and others were studying the music- 
lore from Yashtika, a devotee of Sri Rama, 
in a plantain-garden, when Anjaneya appro^ 
ached the latter for enlightenment on Desi 
'Ragas especially, and for knowing methods to 
bridge the^gulf between theory jind practice. 
Yashtika taught Hanuman. According to 
it and in accordance with the practice in the 
form of the music sung by the Yakshas viz. 
the Yaksha Gana, the latter wrote his 
work. From the above story we learn 
these facts. In the big music work known 
as Anjaneya s, Yashtika is followed on 
Srutis, Svaras etc. and especially on *the 
subject of Desi Ragas. Anjaneya*s work, like 



that of Yashtika, is important for its con- 
tributions to the topic of Desi Ragas, It is 
suggested in the introduction to the Trivan- 
drum Edition of the Brihaddesi of Matanga, 
that that work is also important for its treat- 
ment of Desi Ragas and that the work itself 
is so called because of its treatment of Desi 
Ragas. And Matanga takes credit for having 
given as Ragas something not found in 
Bharata and others. 

That Yashtika s work is important on the 
subject of Ragas is seen from Matanga s 
work itself. Yashtika is earlier than Matanga, 
who quotes him. On the subject of Bhashas 
in Ragas, a whole section of Bhashalaksha- 
nam is quoted by Matanga from Yashtika 's 
work, This chapter has the colophon ; 

Thus chapter four of Yashtika 's work which 
seems to be called Saruagama Sarnhita treats 
of Bhashas and it is reproduced by Matanga, 
From this extract we see that the work 
attributed to Yashtika clubs hi m together with 
Kasyapa, whose questions on the various 
subjects in music, Yashtika answers. Just as 
- here we see Yashtika appearing in Anjaneya's 
work and also with Daksha, besides being 
associated with Kasyapa in a separate work, 
we find Matanga, figuring in Brihaddesi 
appearing again with Dattila in another 
work called Raga Sagaram, described in my 
previous article. 

Immediately after reproducing Yashtika on 
the Bhashas, Matanga reproduces 16 Bhashas 
from the work of Sardula. 

In a conversation with me, Mr. Rajna^ 
krishna Kavi told me that the Trivan- 
'drum edition of the Brihaddesi is not 
wholly^ by Matanga and that the latter 
part of it ts the Yashtika Sarnhita, 



96 



THE JoyttNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 



This is not a fact. Matanga's Brihaddesi 
is a big work. It is now made avail- 
able to us in the Trivandrum edition, 
which unfortunately contains only up to the 
6th chapter dealing with Prabandhas. 
Matanga, as has been observed in my pre-" 
vious article^ is famous for the Vadya- 
dhyaya of his work and more rCpecially for 
* the section on flute etc., Susira* The la'st 
line of the 6th chapter promises that the 
Vadyadhyaya shall begin next. In the 
portion available, Matanga has quoted a 
chapter from Yashtika's work on Bhashas, as 
also from Sardulu s work on the 16 Bhashas* 
These quotations do not mean that the Tri- 
vandrum edition of the Brikaddesi is a medley 
of the works of Matanga, Yashtika and 
Sardula, 

Nandikesvara, 

In the previous article I had observed that 
the name of Nandikesvara was important 
more as regards drama, dance and rasa 
than as regards music, since most of the 
works seen in his name are. pure Natya works- 
But now we see from Matanga that one 
text credited to Nandikesvara treats of music. 
Matanga quotes him thus : 

P. 32. 

Kauhaliya. 

We have noticed the important name of 
Kohaia and the works attributed to that 
name. We find that there is another writer 
called Kauhaliya who is probably the son of 
Kohaia. Kauhaliya is given as one of the 
18 sages who wrote Sikshas, by Ayya Sastrin 
in his work called the Sapta Svara Sindhu. 
(Vide Journal of the Music Academy, Madras 
Vol II, No. 3, p. 148- Mr. P. S. Sundaram 
Ayyar's University Music Lectures). 



Tumburu's work. 

Though evidences are available as regards 
the existence of a work on music in the name 
of Tumburu, we had not till now any 
reference giving us the name of his work* 
We now come upon a valuable reference in 
Lochanakavi's Raga Tarangini, which gives us 
that Tumburu s work is called Tumburu 
Nataka. Lochanakavi quotes the Tumburu 
Nataka on the times appropriate to each Raga 
"*PTtf!li HTWKJP g*a*Hld^ I " Turn- 
buru^Hataka means Tumburu Bharata and 
(t&&1he name we can see that it is an early 
Worfetreating of music as an anga of Drama 
and Dance. Two verses on the different kinds 
of EJ&vani from Tumburu are quoted by Kalli- 
natha on p; 35. 

Bharata- Vistara and Uttara. 

In connection with the name of Bharata 
and his Natya Sastra we noticed a Bharata, 
an Adi Bharata, whom Raghava Bhatta and 
many others quote and a third called Bharata 
Vriddha, whom Saradatanaya quotes. From 
a manuscript work called Sahitya Sara by 
one Suresvara in the Madras Government 
Manuscripts Library, we hear of a fourth work 
connected with the name of sage Bharata 
called Bharata Vistara, as will be seen from 
the quotation to be given below* 

Speaking of Kohaia, we said that hii name 
appears even is Bharata 's 'Natya Sastra (last 
chapter). In the concluding chapter of the 
Bharata Natya Sastra, we find that Kohaia is 
one of the sages who came from heaven to 
earth, for the sake of spreading the art of 
Bharata according to the wish of King Nahu- 
sha. Bharata himself says that what he himself 
has not dealt with, Kohaia will do in the 
Uttara Tantra. 

*raT^*rfe fesar *rr^ srt^r ^r^r it 

N. S. XXXVL SI,, 64 and 65. 



SOME MORE NAMES TN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE 



97 



From this *ve come to know that Kohala's 
work is called Uttara Tantra, which means, 
that Bharatas work is also called Purva 
Tantra. But now we come across the 
following verse in the above-said Sahitya- 
Sara of Suresvara, which says, that there are 
two separate works called Kohalaand Uttara, 
Giving the sources of his own work, Sures- 
varasays : 

S. S. Mad. Mss. Triennial Catalogue. 

1916-19, R. 2432. 

Thus Uttara is a separate work, different 
from the work of Kohala, 

Narada Samhita* 

We have noticed a Siksha of Narada and> 
many other works credited to him like 
Sahgita Makaranda. From quotations in a 
Ms. work called Sangita Narayana by 
King Narayana (available in the Madras 
Govt, Manuscripts Library), we now come to 
know of a work called Narada Samhita. 
Firstly, King Narayana quotes Narada 
Samhita on the definition of Gita. 

Pp. 6. Mad, Ms, 

There are further citations from this work 
in the same Sangita Narayana on pp. 22 f 23 
and 96, From this work being quoted on 
Tandava and Lasya in the Nartanadhyaya, 
we see that Narada Samhita dealt with 
Natya also* 

Panchama Sara Samhita. 

The above- mentioned Sangita Narayana 
gives us another music work called Pan- 
chama Sara Samhita which it quotes often.* 
On pp. 19 of the Ms. a list of Ragas is quoted 
from this Samhita. On pp. 51, Narayana 



quotes this Samhita on the time appropriate 
for- each Raga. As against the view of this 
Samhita on this subject, Kohala is quoted, 
with whose views, says King Narayana, the. 
practice of the Southerners agrees. There 
is a third extract from the Panchama Sara 
Samhita on pp t 63, Kavi Ratna . Narayana, 
son of the teacher of the above-said King 
Narayana, quotes this Panchama Sara 
Samhita as also Narada Samhita in his 
music work called Sangita Sarani (pp, 44 
and 45 of S. S. Mad. Ms), Another work, 
Kavichintamani by Gopinatha Kavi Bhu- 
shana, which deals with music in the 24th 
chapter also quotes these two Samhitas, 

Deva Raja, 

Deva Raja is a new writer whom we know 
from Nanya Deva's Bharata Bhashya. It is 
not known whether Devaraja is only Indra, 
the King of the Devas, or he is a historical 
writer. Nanyadeva first quotes him on Graha 
Svara. 

Pp. 158 Mad. Ms, 
He is quoted again thrice by Nanya- 
deva but the Ms. gives his name in these 
places variously as f^^T^T, ^*TH,_and 

Pp. 159, % (^) TT^t (s^n) qg- 
f^ffarf *j*TTrt H^rag^T%^ ^ ^fe^ft etc. 

Pp. 159. ft*) (* c ) *W V 

Pp. 302. ^3f («r) ^RT:, c *lldM3]VJT- 

Gandharva Rajas Raga Ratnakara, 

, If the King of Devas has a music work ia 
his name, the King of Gandharvasalso has one 
in his name. It is but proper that Gandharva 
Raja should have to his credit a work on 
Gandharva Veda. A work on Ragas called 
Raga Ratnakara attributed to Gandharva- 



98 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 



raja is available in the Tanjore Lib- 
rary. It is described by Dr. Burnell on 
pp. 60 of his Tanjore catalogue. Dr. 
Burnell says that the work is described 
in the Central Provinces catalogue also 
(pp, 96-97). 

Visvakarman. 

While commenting on the chapter on 
' Make up ' etc, (aTTEPrffa^) in Bharata, 
Abhinavagupta refers to a text of Visva- 
karman on the making of such stage-articles 
as Mahendradhvaja etc.* (pp. 20 Vol* III, 
Abhinava Bharati, Mad, Ms,), It is not un- 
likely that there is a work attributed to this 
divine architect and manufacturer, which 
deals with the making of musical instru- 
ments* 

King Narayana, in the Vadyadhyaya (II) 
of his Sangita Narayana, quotes two 
Anushtubh verses of Visvakarman on the 
manufacture of Mridanga (pp. 4 of the S. N. 
Mad. Ms,). 

Sarasvata Grant ha and 
Brahaspati's work. 

The Goddess of Arts and learning must 
certainly have to her credit a work on 
Natya-Sangita. We come across a reference 
to her work called Sarasvata *Grantha, 
from which and from Nandikesvara s 
Bharatarnava* one later South Indian writer, 
named Mudumbai Narasimbachariar, com- 
piled a big Natya treatise called Bharata Sar- 
vartha Sangraha. (Mad. Mss, library Trien. 
Cat, 1916-19 R- 2435). This work says : 

This same Bharata Sarvartha Sangraha 
mentions Brihaspati, the preceptor of the 
Devas, also, as having written a Natya work. 
One of its colophons runs thus: 



!W<fU — grrf^rarrf^ sFsrcfjfer— srrc- 

Somanarya, another late writer on Natya, 
cites in his Natya Chudamani, Brihaspati as 
an authority. 

Vena* 

• Vena seems te be an old writer belonging to 
the class of Sages like Bharata. Kallinatha 
quotes him as holding the. view that the 
Srot^are nine in number, 

■■'^fljisfit: f^ft^r ^g^fiw nw* i 

Pp, 35. 

The name of Vena s work etc, is not 
known. Tulaja reproduces this quotation 
from Kallinatha wholesale in his Sangita 
Saramrtam and there we find the mistaken 
form Venya. 

I am inclined to take the word 'Wr^t ' , 
of Kallinatha as '^W^V The text is cor- 
rupt. If we take it, as I suggest, we have no 
writer referred to here, but only the view of 
some sage that, as regards playing on the 
Flute (Venu), the Srutis are nine* 

Some other mythical names. 

The Natyachudamani of Somanarya (Mad. 
Library Ms. Trien Cat, 1910-13 R. 366e) men- 
tions as auhorities on Natya and Sangita, 
Mddhava (i.e.) Vishnu, and the two sons of 
Siva, GanesA and Shanmukha, than whom 
there is none having greater right to enter 
the pantheon of Sangitacbaryas* 

There is a work on Nat) a called Balarama 
Bharata by a King of Travancore called 
Balarama Kulasekhara Varma of the Vanchi 
Royal line. This work is in the Mad, Mss, 
Library (Trien Cat 1916-39 R. 226^). This 
king can be identified with one of this name 



SOME MORE NAMES IN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE 



99 



mentioned by R. Sewell in his Archeological 
survey of South India, as having ruled bet- 
ween 1798 and 1810 A.D. This Bala Rama 
Varma quotes in his work : 

1 . A work on Tala called Sabda Ratnavali, 

2. called Tandava, 

and three mythical writers Vachaspati 
(same as the above noticed Brihaspati) Bhrigu 
(mentioned nowhere else) and Agastya. The 
last writer Agastya is mentioned elsewhere 
only by Saradatanaya,. ■ 

Aumapatam Gita Sastram. 

A music work of the above name, of 
which the author is given as Umapati t is 
available in the Madras Mss Library. Trien. 
Cat 1916-19, R, 2498. The work is small 
and is given an ancient air having been cast 
as a dialogue between Siva and Parvati on 
the subject of Music and Natya, The work 
contains 38 small chapters, the contents of 
which are as follows : 

^d^W^^pir, 11. ^gf^nr^ar, is. 

Here ends section 1 treating of Sruti, 
Svara, Jati and Raga. 

13. CT«9qrar 14, jrfesr^ is. ^k- 

(This chapter describes various kinds of 
Gitas known as Tripad&). 

Here ends section II treating of some 
compositions like E£*n"- 

21. 3Tra\ — The work classifies instrumen- 
tal music into three kinds : ^nfN 1 , ftrW and 
f^ffa. Sajiva (living) is instrumental music 



.accompanied by the vocal music of the same 
artist. Misra or mixed instrumental music is 
the playing on flutes, where the throat of 
artist plays a part, even though there is no 
vocal music. Nirjiva or lifeless music is pure 
playing on Veena etc., without vocal music. 

So high a place to vocal music or the music 
of Gatra Veena is accorded by this work. 

Chapters 21, ^gj^^. 22. ^arra^ 

The Avanaddha Vadyas are separately dealt 
with after treating of Tala. The fourth 
section treats of Talas as follows :— 

Chapters 3 3- ?TT5? and 15*. 34, 

Section V deals with drums. 

Chapter 30', speaks of three kinds of Mad- 
dala, Suddha Maddala, Salaka and Sankirna 
Maddalas. 

Chapter 31. ^^T^T^T— This seems to be 
another kind of drum. ^ 

Section VI treats of Nrttya. 

3a - ^rf^I ^rq-, 33. fa^^$T*JT, 34. 

37, Description of the seating etc, of the 
King and the other members of the audience 
to witness dance, description of the stage etc. 

Chapter 38, constitutes section VII 
and is devoted to Prabandhas. Many rare 
works occur here, indicating that the work 
belongs to the early period, i 

Mr. Rarnakrishna Kavi tells me that the 
above described Ms. of this work in the 
Madras Ori, Mss. Library is incomplete and 
that there are copies of the complete work 
elsewhere. 



iOO THE JOURNAL OF T 

* 

The three kinds of Ragas and other Ragas 
corning within these three kinds are repro- 
duced from this Aurruipatam in extenso by 
Kallinatha in his Kaldnidhi on S. R. pp. 
228^243* This Aumapata is quoted in the 
Raga Vibodha by Sornanatha and by Damo- 
dara in his Sangita Darpanarn. 

It is not known whether Umapati, after 
whom the work is named either as Umapati j 
Bharata, Umapati Git a Sastra or Umapati 
Tantra, is a historical writer or only God 
Siva who delivers the whole work as instruc- 
tion to Devi, Sornanatha takes Umapati to 
mean Siva. But a reference to Umapati in 
the Sangita Sudha makes him a somewhat 
late writer. The Sangita Sudha also says 
that Umtlpati s Tantra follows the views of 
Nandikesvara. 

Pp, 442, chap. II, S. S. Adayar, Ms. Vol. L 
The Sangita Sudha calls Umapati an Adhu- 
nika i.e. a late writer. But it does not mean 
that Umapati was anywhere near the time 
of Govinda Dikshita or King Raghunatha 
Nayaka. For Sangita Sudha calls even 
Sarngadeva as an Adhunika and Sangita 
Sudha, by calling these two writers*Adhunb 
ka, contrasts them with the still more old 
mythical persons like Siva, Arjuna, 
Nandin, Bharata etc. Though we are not 
able to fix the lower limit to the date of 
Umapati's work, we can say that it is not a 
very late work. The upper limit of its date 
can be known satisfactorily. The Aumapat- 
am while explaining the relation between 
Sruti and Svara in Chapter I, compares 
their mutual relation to that between the 
Vibhavas, Anubhavas, etc, arid the Rasa, the 
former being the Vyanjaka, the suggesting 
elements and, the latter the suggested. 

Pp, 3 Mad. Ms, 



HE MUSIC ACADEMY 

Here T?TO is ^r^T^T^T, the Vibha- 
vas etc, which suggest the Rasa which 
is called Vakyartha. This forestalls 
Ananda Vardhana, the great Alankarika of 
the 9th century and his ideas of Dhvani and 
Rasa- Therefore the Aumapatam is defini- 
tely later than the 9th century. It may even 
be later than Abhinavagupta or even Mam- 
■ mata, ; 

Mftmmata's Sangita Ratna Mala. 

.:Maifir£iata is a well-known Kashmiriao 
vvi^^'on Alankara, who wrote the standard 
Kavyiiprakasa. He, flourished between 
1050; af?d H50 A. D. Scholars were aware 
up tili^ow only that he was a writer on 
Alankara. From numerous quotations in 
King Narayana's Sangita Narayana and Kavi 
Narayanas Sangita Sarani, we come to 
know now, that this Mammata has written a 
work in music also called Sangita Ratna 
Mala. The following are some quotations 
from Mammatas Sangita Ratna Mala found 
/in Sangita Narayana (Mad. Ms). 

1. Pp.20, wwirarotea _*rfftawwmwT- 

STf— ^J^rCTTTfl^lT etc- 

This extract gives a list of 6 Mela Ragas 
and other Ragas* 

eqi*rfm ^snTft srje^M " 

3. On pp. 27 this work is quoted as opining 
that there are three varieties of the Varadi 
Raga called Suddha Varadi, Dravida Varadi, 
and Desa Varadi. 

4. Oa pp. 28 we find that, as against the 
Sangita Sara which gives Gurjari as having 
two varieties, ^%3TJpTCt and ^TKia^^t; 
the S. R Mala has given ten varieties of 
Gurjari Raga. " ISWTBraT 3 

5. On pp. 33, 34 and 36, it is quoted 
on the personified MurtLs of the Ragas 

sf^t*3\ «fft«nq qr% srfrpfp:^ and ^sft- 



SOME MORE NAMES IN EARLY SAG IT A LITERATURE 



101 



6. On pp. 53, there is a quotation from it 
on the proper time for singing certain Ragas. 

7. On pp. 73, a verse is quoted from it 
showing the gods dwelling in each of the 
sounds in the word Tala, 

8. On pp. 21 it is mentioned as an au- 
thority along with other works. 

^nftcrarc— sf^ra— *wror— 

Sangita Sarani gives a quotation from the 
Sangita Ratnamala of Mammata, which 
says, that there is no end to the number of 
Ragas or Talas, Vadyas, or compositions, 

srrfa w wlWRr 3T*?tt *nrftr » 

The Sangita Ratnavali of Somesvara. 
1174-1177 A- D. 

In the previous paper r we noticed 
the Chalukyan King Somesvara of Kalyani, 
whose contribution to Music is a big 
section on that art in his Thesaurus called 
Abhilashitarthachintamarn or Manasollasa. 
There is another Somesvara, who has 
written a music work called Sangita Ratna- 
vali. Sarngadeva s reference to a Somesvara 
may be to either of these two. 

The catalogue of Mss from Gujarat, Kara* 
chi, Sind and Khandesh describes on pp. 244 a 
Ms. of this name, as the work of one Soma- 
ra jadeva who seems to be the same as Somes- 
vara, A Ms. of Sangita Ratnavali in the 
Baroda library is also said to give the 
author as Samara jadeva. This Somara jadeva 
or Somesvara is identified "as a Pratihari^of 
* Vide Literary Supplements of the 'Hindu', M 



the Chalukya king Ajayapala of Gujarat 
(A. D. 1174-1177)." (Vide Introduction to 
Bhava Prakasa, Gaekwad Edn.) 

Svararnava and Svara Raga 
Sudha Rasa, 

Contending against Veena Vidvan 
L, Subramanya Sastriar* tbat Sri Tyagayya 
never followed Venkatamakhi's Chaturdandi- 
prakasika, Mr, Srinivasa Raghavachariar says 
that Tyagayya refers in his Kirtana M Svara 
Raga Sudha Rasa " to three works " Svarar- 
nava, " " Ragarnava " and " Sudharnava," 
Tradition perhaps speaks only of one work 
"Svararnava" as Mr, Sastriar has pointed out 
in his reply. That work Svararnava is said 
to be the work of Narada, who himself gave it 
to Tyagayya in the guise of a Sanyasin. 

In the literary supplement of the Hindu 
of a further date, Mr. P. S, Sundaram 
Ayyar of Tanjore informs us that the section 
on Ragas of a work called ^Svararnava' 1 
written by one Somanarya was discovered by 
fhimin the family of the descendants of 
Syama Sastrigal and that a copy of that 
manuscript has now been deposited in the 
Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal Library. Soma- 
narya is not a name unknown in later 
Sanskrit Sangita Literature. In the paper 
on Later Sangita Literature, which 1 read 
before the Music Conference recently in 
December '32, I spoke about this Somanarya, 
who was well known as proficient in Ashta- 
vadhana, attending to eight things at the 
same time and who has written a big treatise 
on Music called Natya Chudamani, two Mss. * 
of*which work, one having only the Svara* 
dhyaya and the other complete, are available 
in the Madras Government Oriental Mss- 
Library. (Descriptive catalogue Vol. XXII. 
R- 12993 and Triennial catalogue 1910-11 to 
1912-13 R- 366.). The Ms, containing'the 
work completely is accompanied by a gloss in 
Telugu. The work reporte d from Tanjore 

>drasi 1932jDecember 20th, 26th, aod afterwards. 



102 THE JOURNAL OF 1 

may be a part of this Natya Chudamani or 
may be another separate work of Somanarya. 
If this Svararnava reported from Tanjore is 
really the work spoken of, as given to Tya- 
gayya by a sage, scholars will do well to 
examine this Natya Chudamani in the 
Madras Mss. Library, since it is a work by 
the same Somanarya, 

L It will be highly useful if Mr- Sundardm 
Ayyar of Tanjore will examine the Ms. of the 
Svararnava mentioned by him and write in 
greater detail, whether it is thfe work, on whose 
theory is based Ty agay ya's music, and whether 
it is set in the style of a dialogue between 
God Siva and Devi, as the song of Tyagayya 
says. 

If it is not so proved, this Svararnava of 
Somanarya is different from the work given 
to Tyagayya. Further, I hear that the story 
is that the manuscript left with Tyagayya by 
the unknown sage was la terly found out by 
Tyagayya to be the work of sage Narada 
himself but not the work of Somanarya, 
Another question arises as regards this story 
of the Svararnava. Did Tyagayya get this 
work on the theory of music in the middle of 
his career? What was the textual basis for 
his earlier music ? Is the ascription of the 
work to Narada only a story? Finding that 
Tyagayya s music had deviations, did any- 
body named Somanarya write a treatise for 
Tyagayya s music after his time? Mr* Sun- 
daram Ayyar may enlighten us a good deal 
with the help of the Ms of Svararnavam. v 

The other two works mentioned by Mr. 
Srinivasa Raghavachariar, as alluded to in 
the abovesaid Kirtana, are Ragarnava and 
Sudharnava. There is really a work called 
Ragarnava. I spoke of this work, also in my 
paper above referred to. Somanatha quotes 
the Ragarnava in his Raga Vibodha and 
following him Damodara also in his Sangita 
Darpana* Sarngadhara, an anthologist, uses 
Ragarnava for compiling a small music - 



HE MUSIC ACADEMY 

section in his anthology— Sarngadharapad- 
dhatL Thus Ragarnava is earlier than 1300 
A.D v which is the time of Sarngadhara. 

The name Sudharnava does not give us much 
indication as the name of a work on music. 

Lastly, I wish to point out, in connection 
with the music-work alluded to in the song 
"Svara Raga Sudha Rasa M , that thfcre is 
really a music work in Sanskrit called 
"Svara^Raga Sudha Rasa". Unfortunately 
th£t-^£k is ndt completely available. Of 
tt^jiip^ also I spoke in the recent confer- 
en^^^The Tala-sjection of this work, called 

T$fej^-S^-p rana l a ^ sriaTiam ' w * tn a Telugu 
giossl^available in the Madras Mss* Library, 
(Deceptive catalogue Vol XXIL R. 12990)* 
I invite the attention of music-scholars once 
again to this fragment of the work "Svara 
Raga Sudha Rasa" with which Sri Tyagayya 
has opened one of his Kir tanas. 

A work of Vyasa. 

Writing in the Hindu literary supplement 
Tuesday, 20th December, 1932, Mr. 
C. R- Srinivasa Ayyangar says that there is a 
work called Vyasa Kataki and that som e 
attribute the baptism of the 71 Mela-Raga 
scheme to that work. The information is 
from the book of the late Abraham Panditar, 
who mentions that book as having been seen 
by him. It is also said that Mr, Abraham 
Panditar has once said that the book was 
seen by him in the hands of the late Puchchi 
Ayyangar but that this statement could not 
bear verification. 

First of all, the word Kataka in the name 
of this imaginary work does not give any 
sense. Secondly, Vyasa is a rare name in 
Sangita literature, the only writer to mention 
his name in connection with Natya Sastra 
being Saradatanaya. Thirdly, I have not 
been able to find any such work, or any such 
name or any work of Vyasa in the Tanjore, 
Madras or Adayar libraries or in the cata- 
logues of the libraries available. 



154 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MUSIC ACADEMY 



outflow of your magnanimity in the free for the honour you have done me. May God 

application of the several attributes to Sri Ramachandra correct my career and 

qualify my personality, humble as it is, compose my soul! May He bless you all with 

God's mercy come upon me to^ merit your long life and prosperity ! May Nadopasana 

gifts and greetings ! I thank you once more' reach all souls and bestow everlasting bliss! 

Aum Tat Sail! 



SOME NAMES IN EARLY SANGITA LITERATURE (Contd.) 

By V : 

* 

Mr, . V. Rag ha van, b,a. (Hons.) 
Research Student in Sanskrit — The University of Madras. 

Sangita Chudamani of King Pratapa* 

Another work* 

to curtains on the stage for lasya dance. 

(pp, 26. Balamanorama Edn.) The Trivan- 

■ ■ 

drum palace library has a copy of this work, 
(pp. 80, Ms. No, 1417). 

The commentary on *nd«?lRi^ by 
Lakshmidhara (Tanjore Ms.)' quotes the 
S. Chudamani of King Pratapa:— 

Pp, 10* on the Prabandha called tTraiUT^ — 

Again on pp, 16, it is quoted on or 
Pallavi in a song. Mr. Ramakrishna Kavi is 
of opinion that this Pratapa is Tailapa I, 
a Western Chalukyan King, who is called 
Pratapachakravartin in his inscriptions. His 
date is 920, A- D, 



In my first paper on " Some names in early 
Sangita literature," publishedjin this Journal, 
I had mentioned a king named Pratapa as 
being quoted by Parsvadeva in his Sangita 
Samaya Sara,* Parsvadeva says in the 4th 
Chapter of this S. S, Sara : 

-4|4M||lN|4|: si, 80. Triv. Ed, 

I could not make out the identity of this 
writer or the name of his work then. Now 
evidences have come up to show that King 
Pratapa was a great authority like Bhoja 
and Somesvara and that he wrote a work 
called fllftSl^WITH flfr. Kumaraswamin 
quotes this S. Chudamani in his com- 
mentary on the Prataparudriya, with regard 



* Vide pp- 31< The Journal of the Masic Academy Vol. m,*Nos. I 6c % 



some names 
in early 

sangita literature 



By DR. V. RAGHAVAM 



THE proper scope of this paper of mine is 
early Sangita literature. It does not pro- 
pose to go into the Vedic period and the 
Samapratisakhyas nor to treat of the later litera- 
ture i.e., roughly after the time of Sarngadeva, 
the author of the Sangita Ratnakara viz., the 
beginning of the 13th century. There is a 
rationale in this classification of mine of the 
periods of Sangita literature. The early litera- 
ture is Sangita literature dealing with dance 
besides music, vocal and instrumental. 

So the works of the earlier period treat of 
dance and drain a also. Some are predominan- 
tly Natya, works, by the way, treating of 
Sangita at length, For instance, the Bharata 
Sastra on Natya, a work on drama and dance 
devotes 6 of its 36 chapters to music. Narada's 
Sangita Makaranda the Sangita Ratnakara etc, 
are works primarily on Sangita and they con- 
tain chapters on Natya also. As a contrast to 
this early period, the later is only Gita litera- 
ture. This classification proceeds on the general 
rule, taking full cognisance of The presence of 
exceptions. For instance, the Taia Dipika 
quoted by Abhinavagupta is a work of the 
early period but restricts itself to a brancn or 
music, In the later period, when the field was 
filled with digests or treatises on particular 
branches of music, we have such Natya works 
as the Vasania Rajiya Natya Sastra of King 
Kumaragiri, which now lost must have dealt 
with music also. Jagaddhara's Sangita Saryasya 
quoted by him in his commentary on King 
Bhoja's Sarasvati Kanlhahharana, (P. 467) is a 
work of the later period but deals with Natya 



besides music, as the quotation given there 
shows. The Sangita Ratnakara of Sarngadeva. 
is the boundary line roughly, since it is the last 
comprehensive work, comprising within its 
scope all branches of music and in addition, 
Natya. 

A history of the Sanskrit music literature is 
not in the field. A history of early Sangita 
literature is attempted here with the evidences 
supplied mainly by the great commentary 
of Acarya Abhinavagupta on the Natya 
Sastra, Saradatanaya's Bhavaprakasa etc, Even 
this does not propose to be a history but only 
a notice of some names in early Sangita litera- 
ture. Some such thing is being attempted and 
published serially in the Journal of the Music 
Academy, A general survey, with dogmatic 
assertions and mystifying identifications has 
already been made by Mr. Ramakrishna Kavf 
This paper does not restate what is contained 
in Mr. R, KavFs published paper. It proposes 
to be more definite and critical and attempts, 
with citation of authorities, as far as available, 
to ascertain the definite nature and date of 
many works and authors. Especially as regards 
the authors and works known from Abhinagu- 
pta's Abhinava Bharati, this paper has much 
that is not contained in Mr. R. Kavi's paper. 
The scope of this paper is more restricted and 
the treatment is more intense on many points. 

Bliarata's Natya Sastra 

The only early work which is completely 
available to us is the Bharata Natya Sastra, 
Its upper limit is fixed at the 2nd century B.C. 
It treats of music in chapters 28-33. Scholars 



19 



are exercising all their industry and ingenuity 
with regard to the real historical fact about a 
sage Bharata. 

Mr, Manmohan Ghose, suggests in the 
Indian Historical Quarterly, that Bharata was 
a common name meaning 'actor 5 at first, that 
we had Natya Sutras and Bharata Sutras and 
that latterly a mythology of a sage Bharata and 
origin of Natya were created out of the com- 
mon name Bharata. The present text of 
Bharata Sastra contains Anushtups, Aryas and 
long prose paragraphs and occasionally here 
and there Sutra-like prose bits. Some of the 
Arras and Amtshtups, in chapters 6 and 7 on 
Rasa, are introduced as those existing before, 

with the words ^rg^qft 3^Nft m& \ ^rg^ ^T^r 
i cr=F i One of the Anushtups herein 

quoted is attributed to Vasuki in the Bhava- 
prakasa by Sara data nay a (pp. 36 and 37). In 
the ^rfeK, chapters 28-33, it is only in the 
32 and 33, that we find additional prose 
and verses introduced thus— ^^msr. The last 
chapter on ^na^aR says that the rest will be 

dealt with by Kohala. The last portion is called 
Nandi Bharata m the Kavya Mala edition. 
Besides, from Raghava Bhatta's commentary 
on the Sakuntala, we know of an Adi Bharata 
and a Bharata, verses attributad to these two 
some of them being found, some found only as 
parallels and some not found at all in the Natya 
Sastra, We hear of a Bharata Vrddha from 
Saradatanaya, who attributes to him a prose 
passage on Rasa, which is found in the present 
Bharata Sastra only in its parallel. Further 
the Natya Sastra seems to have been called 
and^^^n and there is a tradition recorded 
in Bhavaprakasa and other works that the 
Bharata Natya Sastra is an epitome perhaps of 
the ^?THi£fft . Abhinava himself speaks of three 
Sastras, of Sadasiva, Brahman and Bharata, 
the Natya trinity found in the story of the 
origin of Natya. Mr. Kavi informs us that there 
is also a Natya Veda of 36,000 slokas and that 
portions of the Sadasiva, and Brahma Bharata s 
are available now. There is no denying the 
fact of big works on Natya and Sangita exist- 
ing as works of Sadasiva and Brahman. The 
Dasarupa contains verses of Sadasiva, while the 
Bhavaprakasa quotes opinions of both Sadasiva 
and Brahman. It is likely that the extant 
Natya Sastra of Bharata is one that has incor- 
porated into itself many portions of ealier 
Bharata Sastras. 

Similarly it has also incorporated into it- 
self portions of later works. The present text 



is later than Kohala and even Dattila, These 
two writers are included in the list of the hun- 
dred sons of Bharata whom he taught. The 
inclusion of Tandu here does not help us 
much, Kohala is referred to twice in the last 
chapter. In the second reference he is made to 
come along with |ffe (<rf%?r?) and some other 
sages to earth, to live as mortals for sometime 
for the sake of King Nanus ha to write and 
popularise the Drama on earth. After King 
Nahusha brought Natya from heaven to earth 
Brahman says that the Str; fht will be written 
by Kohala. This makes the Bharatiya Natya 
Sastra the T -0^. There is no evidence to prove 
that Kohala 3 s work is called g^eNr- His work 
must have been bigger than Bharata' s and as 
we know from references, he elaborated many 
a topic, as for instance, the many Uparupakas. 
That part of Kohala *s work, stray bits here 
and there got into the text of Bharata cannot 
be disputed. For, in commenting upon the 
tenth verse in chapter six — giving the summary 
of the topics in the Natyasastra as eleven— 
Udbhata is referred to by Abhinavagupta as 
saying that this verse is from Kohala and is 
not part of B ha rata 's text, for Bharata recog- 
nises only five Angas or topics in the Natya 
Sastra, Again in the Dasarupa chapter we 
find more treatment than is promised, the 
Natika being described after Nataka and Pra- 
karana, though it is not one of the Dasarupa- 
kas. Kohala is very well known as the first 
to have introduced, with definitions, Uparupa- 
kas and the Natika here, is perhaps from 
Kohala, though there is no conclusive 
evidence to take it so. 

The ^ ws\ story is very late. We find 
Mr, R. Kavi speaking much of it There is 
nothing to support it in the Natya Sastra, 
which gives a list of hundred Bharatas, sons 
of sage Bharata. Of these hundred sons, we 
are familiar with Kohala, Dattila and Tandu, 
The list is a hopeless one, containing such 

names as Sandals and Shoes, qrj^NR^t The 

origin of the theory is not traced. 

Saradatanaya, in chapter three, first considers 
the name 'Bharata' only as actor. The g^^r 
here given is Siva-Nandin-Brahman and the 
Bharatas, actors and not Bharata, a sage. But 
at the end Saradatanaya contradicts himself 
by saying that Narada taught Bharata and 
Bharata wrote the *sfcqf% as he heard it from 
Narada, But this kind of ^farf% is not recor- 
ded in the extant Natya Sastra. Saradata- 
naya gives this same parampara in chapter tea 



20 



changing the 'Bharatas 5 , actors, into one sage 
with five pupils. 

^R^rt^ft^ ^ra^^' cf?t *r^fei^ 

?WTT^VR?T Hf^FT: ¥^p[ ^qi5|| 

^ #^sft mm ^n ^rrf¥ nfen%: n 

The passage refers to one sage with five 
pupils, who were the first recipients of the 
Natya Veda and whom Brahman called Bhara- 
tas. This same verse is quoted by Mr. R. Kavi 
to prove the Panca Bharatas. As a matter of 
fact the first verse above given proves not 
five Bharatas, but one and five i.e. six Bharatas, 
Again, all these were called Bharatas because, 
according to the ingenious derivation Sarada- 
ianaya gives here, viz., £ y° u t> ear or hold 
or preserve the Natya Veda', (imperative of 
to bear) Bharatas were so addressed by 
Brahman, (vide verses quoted above). This 
^also proves the theory that the name Bharata 
as a sage is a later myth and that Bharatas at 
first meant only actors. But it is rather 
strange how actors could have been known as 
Bharatas. Saradatanaya's explanation is far- 
fetched. The still later and most popular deri- 
vation, explaining Bharata as an epitome of 
the first letters of wt and is equally 
far fetched. 

Mr. Ramakrishna Kavi adduces farther 
■evidence from Tamil literature, from Adiyarkku 
Nallar 's commentary on the Silappadikaram. 
This also is wrong evidence. Adiyarkku 
Nallar does mention the name 'Panca Bharati- 
yam' but mentions it not as a collection of 
five works on Natya by five different writers, 
but as one single work by one author, the 
-author of it being Deva Rishi Narada, When 
thus the evidences adduced mean something 
-else and the theory of five Bharatas in early 
Natya literature falls to the ground, it is futile 
to suppose imaginatively and suggest that 
Kohala is the second Bharata, another, the third 
and so on, as Mr. R. Kavi does. The exact im- 
port of the word 'Panca Bharatiyam* in Adiya- 
rkku Nallar means something else. It refers to 
a custom of dividing the subject of Natya into 
five heads or sections, Another Tamil Natya 
work, Panca Marabu, referred to by the same 
Adiyarkku Nallar, is also one such which 



treats of Natya in five sections. The five 
sections may be the five An gas of Natya referr- 
ed to by Abhinava as Bharata's view,— the five 
Anagas being the three Abhinayas and the two 
kinds af music, vocal and instrumental, 
(pp. 265. Chap. VI, Gaek. Ed.) 

Another point to be investigated in the 
history of early Natya literature is the part 
played by king Nahusha in it. The last chap- 
ter of the available Natya Sastra gives king 
Nahusha the credit of bringing from heaven to 
earth, the beautiful lore of Natya. In Saradat- 
anaya's Bhavaprakasa, in the tenth chapter, 
Manu takes the place of king Nahusha. Manu 
as king feels tired in his duty and Surya his 
father, asks him to go to Brahman who has 
got the Natya Veda from Siva. Brahman sent 
six Bharatas along with Manu to Ayodhya to 
receive him now and »then with the entertain- 
ment of Drama, Dance and Music. The 
Bharatas then multiplied on earth; they wrote 
treatises, one in twelve thousand si okas, and 
another, an epitome of the former, in six 
thousand slokas. After the name of those 
who possess and exhibit it, the Sastra itself is 
called Bharata Sastra. 

Coming to the many names in Sangita 
literature, mythical and semi-mythical, the 
likelihood is that, as in the case of Sadasiva 
and Brahman, the names were only of epony- 
mous authors; but there were definitely works 
on Natya and music current as theirs. This 
we shall see, as we take up such names, one 
by one. 

Kasyapa 

This sage is referred to by Sarngadeva as 
one of the authorities on music. He is men- 
tioned in Narada' s Sangita Makaranda (p. 13). 
Matanga's Brhaddesi refers to him seven times. 
The Abhinava Bharati of Abhinavagupta con- 
tains two references to this sage, in Vol, IV 
of the Madras MSS. The first reference is a 
quotation from the Tika-Kara (Commentator) 
on the Natya Sastra who quotes in his com- 
mentary, one and half Anushtups of Kasyapa 
dealing with the ^ot^Vt of Ragas i.e., the 
particular tunes appropriate to each Rasa. 

^w*\ ^fc qrt%TO*r — . , . .(?) 

Vol IV Mad. MS. p. 5 



21 



The second reference to Kasyapa given by 
Abhinavagupta is on the same page, on the 
same topic. 

( ffiwC fi^) wit ^ 

And Abhinava gives eight pages of Anush- 
tups on the particular tunes to be used accord- 
ing to the various Rasas and Bhavas. This is 
either a quotation or a compilation made by 
Abhinava himself from Kasyapa and other 
writers, for he says at the end— 

An earlier reference is available in chapter 
five. 

Kasyapa dealt with Drama and Aiankara 
also elaborately since he is so referred to by 
Hrdayangama, a commentary on the 
Kavyadarsa of Dandim 

Brhat Kasyapa 

Besides Kasyapa, there is yet another called 
Brhat Kasyapa, an early writer on music. 
There are two references to him in the work of 
King Nanyadeva, (pp. Ill-b and 114-a; Manu- 
script of the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute,) 
Thus there are two works on music by sage 
Kasyapa, one being Laghu Kasyapa and another 
Brhat Kasyapa, the latter being similar to 
Brhat Desu 

Nandikesvara or Nandin 

The place of Nandin in the mythological 
origin of the Natya Sastra is by the side of 
Siva himself. The latter portion of the Bharata 
Natya Sastra in the Kavya Mala edition is 
called Nandi Bharata. Works attributed to 
him arc many. There is a music work called 
Nandi Bharata, noticed by Rice in Mysore and 
Coorg Catalogue, The Madras Catalogue has 
a qft^TO^^^f^^- and another work called 
iK^Nfetf with a Telugu Commentary descri- 
bed as a dialogue between Nandikesvara and 
Parvati. 



From the manuscript of the Bhartarnava 
in the Tanjore library we see that this is the 
tenth chapter in Nandikesvara' s Bharatarnava. 

The Tanjore library has a work called ^m- 
^*rr attributed to Nandikesvara. Most of the 
works attributed to him treat more of Natya 
thzrn Sangita. In Rajasekhara's Kavya Mimamsa, 
in his account of the origin of the Sahitya 
Sastra, Nandikesvara is mentioned as the first 
writer on Rasa. So it is likely that the name 
Nandikesvara is not important in music as 
much as in Dance, Drama and Rasa. 

One of his major works was not available 
to Abhinavagupta. Abhinava, while quoting 
him, says that he is reproducing Nandikes- 
vara's views, exactly as quoted by 
Kirtidharacarya. only on the authority of 
Kirtidhara and that he himself never saw the 
work of Nandikesvara. 

Vol IV, p. 50. 

Then Abhinava gives, as given by Kirtidhara 
large prose extracts from Nandikesvara on 
pp. 51-54, on the srcfrf of wrkrfer, dances in 
the Though one such work of Nandi- 

kesvara, which was available to Kirtidhara was 
not available to Abhinava, another work called 
sri^tm was available to Abhinava and he 
quotes it, 

*if%T^SKld ait f^TT Sfet i#TO.f 

P. 171 Gaekwad 

The assumption of the indentity of 
Nandikesvara with Tandu made by Mr. 
R, Kavi is quite wrong. As proved above- 
the legend of Panca Bharata has no evidence. 
There is no meaning in idle guesses or assump- 
tions that Nandin or Tandu or Kohala or 
Kasyapa is one of the five Bharatas. Inciden- 
tally we will deal with the name Tandu- also, 
Tandu is mentioned in the Natya Sastra as- 
one of the 100 sons of Bharata, to whom 
Bharata taught his Natya. But latterly he is* 
made to belong to the camp of Siva, and 
through Tandu, who was a witness of Siva's 
evening dances. Siva passes the Tandava dances 



22 



to Sage Bharata. Abhiaava quotes Kohala 
(p. 182, Gaek Ed.) who says that when Siva 
was dancing, Narad a propitiated him by 
singing the fagd f *n*T* ; Siva danced according to 
Narada's song; and gave this Tandava, as part 
of Natya, to Tandn who passed it to others. 
In connection with Tandava there is also 
mention of one Tandya, Thus it is very di- 
fficult to hazard any such thing as Mr. R, Kavi 
has done, as regards the name Tandu, Whether 
Tandu first existed is a question. It is most 
likely that Tandava first existed and to create a 
beautiful story for its origin, grammar was 
resorted to and Tandu was, lattery, grammati- 
cally extracted out of the word Tandava, which 
word itself was long a ^fs among the Natas, 
even as <*rc and other terms. Kohala's Sangita 
Meru as quoted extensively by Kallinatha, in 
the sr^r^R, refers to one Bhatta Tandu five 
times. The affix 'Bhatta' to the name Tandu 
makes him less mythological and more histori- 
cal. Whether another historical writer with the 
name Bhatta Tandu existed is not yet known. 

Nandikesvara's very popular work is the 
Abhinaya Darpana, It is available in print, 
being printed in Telugu characters by Nida- 
mangalam Tiruvenkatachari and subsequently 
translated into English by A.K. Coomaraswamy 
and Duggarilal. The compiler of the Bharaia 
Rasa Prakarana printed along with it was 
Sabhapati Ayyar, a Brahmin Bharatacarya of 
the Tanjore Court, a Bhagavatar who finally 
settled at Mannargudi and taught his art to 
some. This Abhinaya Darpana is fitted into the 
style of a dialogue between Indra and Nandin. 
Nandin says that there is a big work called 
'^ R^M ^P 'ocean of the Bbarata art', in four thou- 
sand si okas and that the Abhinaya Darpana itself 
is its summary. We often hear of the early 
Natya works of twelve thousand and six thou- 
sand verses. But this work of four thousand 
verses is new. There is a work called *r<crrck 
available in the Madras and Tanjore MSS 
libraries. Three copies of this ^tt=§^ with 
Telugu Tika are available in the Madras 
MSS Library. (Catalogue Volume XXII 
nos. 13006-08.) These MSS have in their 
colophons an epithet grrfN^r to the name vrtjtcr. 
The significance of this epithet is known only 
from the Tanjore Library MSS. of the 
Bharatarnava. It is called there as gt^m^cf which 
is a mistake for ^yjWsi- Suraati is the king 
of the semi-divine'beings called and the 
work Bharatarnava is in the style "of Nandin 
teaching the Natya lore to this Guhyakesa call- 
ed Sumati. From the colophon to chapter ten 



of this work in the Tanjore library, we come 
to know of another work called Wsi the 
Hastabhinaya section of which is utilised by 
Nandikcswara. From chapter thirteen, we 
also see that there is a work on Natya in the 
name of sage Yajnavalkya. 

"g*r^ sf^rr rrtrgf^ 

Chapter thirteen, deals with the seven kinds 
of Lasya, which perhaps were dealt with 
elaborately in a work attributed to sage 
Yajnavalkya. 

Narada 

Abhinava refers to Narada in Vol, II 
page 100 with regard to the etymology and 
meaning of the word nr*pf. 

^%^^ri% ^r^f%l^^*rfq ir 

Dattila earlier than Matanga, who quotes 
him, quotes Narada. Matanga also quotes 
Narada, We have at least two Naradas: one r 
the author of the Siksha and the other, the 
author of the Sangita Makaranda published in 
the Gaekwad series. Scholars opine that the 
Narada referred to as holding the ^ti^k^jjt is the 
author of the Sangita Makaranda which has 
that srnr. This is to show the genuineness of the 
Sangita Makaranda as a work of Narada. The 
Sangita Makaranda, on page thirteen, gives 
the names of a number of writers. The refer- 
ence to Matrgupta here definitely puts the 
date of the Sangita Makaranda after the 
seventh century. Vikrama is another note- 
worthy, and indentifiable name quoted here. 
Two names that we miss in this list are 
Kohala and Dattila. The Tanjore Library has 
a work attributed to Narada, called 

Kohala 

It is from Kallinatha that we have^ the best 
glimpse into Kohala, In the ^o^t^t^t of 
the Sangita Ratnakara, in his commentary, 
Kallinatha gives the additional ^q^rfs from 
Kohala. From here we learn some facts about 
Kohala's work. 

(i) Kohala's work is called Sangita Meru. 

(ii) It is in dialogue style, like the Bharata 
Sastra, a dialogue between Sage Sardula and 



23 



Kohala, the latter replying to the former's 
queries. 

(iii) It is in Anushtup verses, 

(iv) Its first part treated of Natya and the 
latter part only of Sangita. The work was 
thus in the style of the ancient works, in dia- 
logue style and divided into Ahnikas. The 
extracts from Kohala given by Kallinalha quote 
the following names; 

Wfrsji #ffe 3 ^KZ ( author of the Siksha ) 5 

(God Siva), tt^W, %W^t and ^rferafsfi i 

These references are absolutely confusing. 

The names *f*<rcg, "^fltPsr and ?frfer^J 

look quite historical. Kirtidhara is later than 
Nandikesvara's work. But the reference to 
Matanga is hopeless for Matanga himseif quotes 
Kohaia. Matanga' & Brhaddcsi further quotes 
Dattila, who himself quotes Kohala. The only 
possible conclusion is : We know Kohala to 
* be a very early writer whose name is by the 
side of Bharata. The last chapter of Bharota 
Natya Sastra contains a promise that the rest 
will be done by Kohala* Though there is yet 
little authority to make out Kohala as one of 
the 5 Bharatas whom Brahman instructed (as 
Mr. R. Kavi has made out), there is no denying 
that Kohala was a very early writer. A music 
work called '^M^nr' is attributed to him in 
Aufrecht's catalogue. The Madras Catalogue 
contains a Kohaliya Abhinaya Sastra with a 
Telugu commentary, A Dattila-Kohaliya 
noticed by Dr. Burnell, was once available in 
the Tanjore Library. Rajasekhara's Drama Bala 
Ramayana lifts his name out of the historical 
sphere. These show — 

(i) Kohala was an old and convenient 
name to which later writers could 
ascribe their own works. 

(u) There was a very early work of Kohala. 

(iii) The Sangita Aferu itself may not be 
actually this first work of Kohala but 
may be an elaborated one of some 
later time foisted on the name of 
Kohala. But the Sangita Mem may be 
that well known work of Kohala which 
Abbinava quotes often. 

Abhinavagupta refers to Kohala very often 
both in the ^R^rfe^ and in the wrfcfiR: . The 
name Kohala^ is as great in the history of 
Drama and Dramaturgy as it is in that of music. 
The Sangita Mem must be a very voluminous 
and valuable work. In Dramaturgy and Rhe- 
toric, Kohala is always quoted even by later 



writers as the writer who first introduced the 
Uparupakas, minor types of Dramas, Totaka, 
Sattaka etc. In the Madras MSS, Library 
there are some fragments described as extracts 
from Kohala's works. Thus we have ^ferr^f 
^Fmrr# and wm%W (Nos. 12,989 and 12992 
Cat. Vol. XXII.) There is also a work called 
#f^¥^, available in this library— Triennial 
1910- II to 1912-13. Only the 13th chapter 
is available. It is set in dialogue style, Kohala 
replying to Matanga. 

Dattila 

Dattila is often Dantila also. He is often 
coupled with Kohala and the reason is not 
kn own. Dattila is a very early writer whom, 
especially in the %rrt%fiK Abhinava quotes very 
frequently, more often than even Kohala. He 
is referred to as ^RfcrHR and from the references 
we may infer that Dattila' s work was in Anush- 
lups like Kohala's and Bharata's. 

'Dattilam' published in the Trivandrum 
series is only a very late fragmentary selection 
or condensation of the early original and big 
work of Dattila, which is not yet available. 
Dattila's work must have, like other early 
works, dealt with dance and dramaturgy. It 
must have been big. The Trivandrum text of 
Dattilam is very small even as regards music. 
It has no section on drama and dance. There 
is no denying the fact that Dattila's work 
treated of *nzjt also. 

The Trivandrum edition of Dattilam quotes 
Narada, Kohala and Visakhila. Even as regards 
the original Dattila, it may be only later to 
Kohala, 

There are two copies of a work called otwtc 
in the Madras MSS, Library ( Cat. Vol. XXII 
Nos. 13,014 and 13,015) in 3 Tarangas, tfjn%r*T a 
^f^OT*rfc*RT, and ^r^Rfaqw i The last 
Taranga gives the R ski Chandas and Dhyana of 
each Raga. The colophon of this work des- 
cribes it as a dialogue between Narada and 
Dattila. 

Anjaneya 

If we can expect a and an as 

Sangita Acaryas, why not Anjaneya ? As a 



24 



matter of fact, evidences of Anjaneya having 
had some work on Natya and music to his 
credit, are more than those available for many 
others of his class. Samgadeva and Narada 
enumerate him in their lists. On p. 25 L Caek. 
ed M defining and describing the Rupaka called 
Saradatanaya quotes in his Bhava- 
prakasa> Anjaneya along with s^ng I 

Chap. VIII 

Again as Maruti, he is quoted by Saradata- 
naya on p. 114, 19 in Chap. V. From the 
first given reference we can make out that Anja- 
ncya's work dealt with Dramaturgy at length. 
From the other reference in the Bhavaprakasa 
we see that this f^ ffiff^ rfffi work dealt elabora- 
tely with also, even as BharataV As 
regards the signs by which another man's wife 
shows her love to her secret lover, Saradatanaya 
quotes ttt^ who says that such signs or indica- 
tory Bhavas are common to all women. 

wiKW^ sr^Tsi ^f^rfew *u^fe n 

That Anjaneya's work dealt with music also 
is plain- Kallinatha quotes him on p. 218, chap. 
2 on Desi Ragas ;■ — 

Sangita Darpana of Damodara, a later work 
which quotes Samgadeva and Kallinatha, quotes 
Anjaneya twice. The first reference is a general 
praise on Nada, 

Again in the enumeration of Ragas and 
their consorts — Raginis — he is quoted as Hanu- 
mam This reference makes Hanuman's work as 
expounding the northern system which alone has 
the scheme of Raga-Raginis. We also hear of 
a work on Natya called ?g**g^ * Ahobala, in 
his Sangita Parijata refers to and bases his defi- 
nitions often on Hanuman. 

Sardula 

Samgadeva 's and Narada's lists contain the 
name of Sardula* In the latter's list there is 



also another name *w which is only a synonym 
of ^[[fV . Similarly there are 2 references under 
two different synonyms to Vishnu and Indra, in 
the Sangita Makaranda. Samgadeva couples 
^Tt^^r with s Neither Abhinavagupta nor 
Samgadeva nor Kallinatha refer to any opinion 
of Sardula. It is thus very likely that Sardula 
finds a place among Sangita Acaryas because he 
is the questioner to whom Kohala's Sangita 
Merit is addressed as reply. The Brhaddesi 
however has two references to Sardula indepen- 
dently, 

Durgasakti 

Durgasakti is referred to as gTO f f fl by 
Matanga. Tt is likely he is a historical per- 
sonage. Besides mentioning him in his list of 
authorities at the beginning, Samgadeva refers 
to him along with Kasyapa on p t 182 S.R. 

Yaslitika 

Samgadeva mentions Yashtika as an au- 
thority on music in his list. Matanga quotes 
him seven times. Nanyadeva quotes him once. 
From the latter fact we can take that there was 
some definite work on music current as Yash- 
tika's. The fact gains additional support from 
a reference to him given by Kallinatha on 
p. 228 in Chapter 2. 

Kambala and Asvatara 

These two are always associates and are- 
two figures in the mythological pantheon of 
Sangita Acaryas. Samgadeva mentions these 
two as authorities on music and again quotes 
them in chapter 1, p. 78 as holding" some defi- 
nite opinion, different from that of Bharata. 
The reference proves that some music work was 
extant as theirs, but need not prove that that 
work was available to Samgadeva, who might 
have referred to their view from references in 
the works of earlier writers. We do not hear 
of these two any where else in the works of the 
early period but have some information about 
them in Damodara's Sangita Darpana, These 
two are not "Wool" and "Ass" but ^Snakes". 
They propitiated Sarasvati, got the ^rrcf^r and 
became the ear-ornaments, jjt^t of God Siva, 
a post from which they could be pouring their 
music into the ears of God. 

Kambala and Asvatara are mentioned as 
two Nagas, serpents in the list of Nagas in 
chapter 35, Adiparva M. Bha. 



25 



SI. 10. 

The Markandcya Parana gives their story in 
Chapter 21 . 

Matanga 

Abhinava quotes sage Matanga only twice— 
pp. 59 and 67, VoL IV Mad. MSS, Since quot- 
ations from his work given by other writers 
are found here, we may take the Trivandrum 
Ed. of Matanga's Brhaddesl as genuine though 
it is incomplete. Matanga quotes: 

Kasyapa, Kohala, Dattila, Durgasakti, Nan- 
dikesvara, Narada, Brahman, Bharata, Mahes- 
vara, Yashtika, Vallabha, Visvavasu and 
Sardula. 

Of these names Vallabha must be noted. 
We do not hear of this Sangitacharya Vallabha 
anywhere else. 

From a reference ia Kailinatha, on page 82, 
we see that Matanga quotes Rudrata, who 
flourished in the first quarter of the ninth cen- 
tury. Hence the Brhaddesi is later than the 
ninth century. 

Damodaragupta, in his KuUanimata makes 
Matanga a specialist in flute. 

''if^RT^ sjRtWF TTcFWJfft: l" 

Si 854. 

The Brhaddesi must have been famous for 
the excellence of its gfro^H and this has resul- 
ted in a story of Sangita, that Matanga propi- 
tiated Siva by singing on the flute. Abhinava 
mentions this story in the gfer^^ Vol. IV, 
page 58. 

^fcr (?) st#s : 

The Vadyadhyaya of Brhaddesi itself seems 
to have been held in high esteem. Jayasimha 
(C 1253 A.D.) in his work on Naiya called 
Nrtta Rainavali (Tanjore Library) mentions the 
^pnrr^ of Matanga's BrhaddesL 

Visakhila 

Abhinavagupta quotes Visakhilacharya six 
times in his commentary on the Geyadhikara. 
His work was earlier to that of Dattila who 
quotes him. 



Vayu 

Vayu is given in the list of Sarngadeva and 
Narada. We have no other information about 
him in any other authoritative work. His must 
certainly be a prominent niche in the temple 
of the Sangitacaryas for, as wind that sings 
through the atmosphere and the trees, as the 
carrier of music, as the snwg which creates ^ 
and as air playing in the holes of the flute, 
certainly Vayu's part is very great in any myth 
of the origin of Sangita Sasira. It is also 
likely that the name Vayu refers to the Vayu- 
purana which says something of music, 

Visvavasu 

Visvavasu is merely enumerated by Sarnga- 
deva. Matanga attributes to him some opinion 
in his Brhaddesi, on p. 4- Simha Bhupala, in 
his commentary on the Svaradhyaya of the 
Sangita Ratnakara quotes a passage from Visva- 
vasu. It may be that there is a work in his 
name. Visvavasu is the name of one of the 
Gandharvas who are, as a class, musicians and 
as a Gandharva at least, he enters the list The 
name of Tumburu is similar. He is not only 
a Gandharva but is often associated with 
Narada also and hence has a double title to 
enter the list. 

Rambha and Arjuna 

Rambha is a mere name now, no work in 
her name being available. As an Apsara and 
exponent of Naiya in heaven, she has a sure 
place in the list. Arjuiia's name is also found 
in the lists, His meeting with Rambha in 
heaven and his sojourn at Viratas's court as 
Brhannala, a tutor of dance, have sufficient 
cause for the possibility of some later writer 
ascribing a work of his to the name of Arjuna. 
There is a work called Arjuna Bharata avail- 
able in the Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal Library. 

Havana 

Ravana's name is associated with Samagana 
and with a particular kind of Veena. Rajase- 
kbara's drama, Bala Ramayana makes Kohala 
praise Ravana as having had the fortune of 
enjoying God Siva himself perform Naiya. 
So far, we have not landed on any evidence of 
quotation to show that, in fact, there is a 
work in the name of Ravana even as the many 
Stotras current in his name* 



26 



Guna is another name in Narada's list, 
which is a mere name, no further light upon 
him being available. So are also the follow- 
ing names found in INarada's list: 

Two Haris, Visvakarman, Hariscandra, 
Kamalasyaka (may be Brahman), Candi (pro- 
bably only Devi), Angada (who must naturally 

rgowith Anjaneya), Shanmukha and Bhrngi (these 
2 because of their being the audience at Siva's 

-dance), Kubera (as he is a friend of Siva accord- 
ing to Puranas), sage Kusika, Samudra, Saras- 

"vati (because she is the Goddess of all ftqrs) 
Bali, Yaksha, and Kinnaresa (because Kinnaras 

are described in the Kavyas and Pur anas as 

ringing with instruments,) 

But two names in Narada's list must be 
noted, besides that of ^F^tT, v/z., and ft^r. 
This Vikrama is not quoted elsewhere and it is 
difficult to fix the Sangitacarya Vikrama among 
the many Vikramas in Indian history. The 
other, Samudra is certainly not the ocean, 
but, as regards him, no other evidence is 
available. 

Srati 

Of Svati mentioned in Sarngadcva's list, 
some light is available. It is not likely he has 
any work to his credit but still belongs to the 
pantheon of Sangitacarya s. Bharata says in 
Chapter 1, that on the occasion of the first 
drama in Tndra's flag festival, he took Svati and 
Narada with him, Svati for ^re^rer (drum) 
and Narada for music. 

^i^sr#%?T ^#rr4fm^fe i) 

Abhinavagupla here says in his commentary 
that Svati was responsible for the invention of 
the drum called, Svati is a constellation 

associated with rain and is also a Riski. Abhi- 
nava exercises his imagination with the aid of 
the descriptions in Kavyas and connects the 
deep rumblings of the clouds with the sounds 
produced on the Pitshkara and thus makes 
Svati, to whose charge Bharata gave the drum, 
m^SW as the founder of the 3^ , 



Abhi. Bharati, P. 23, Geak. cd. 

The story of this invention of 3^ and also 
the other by Rishi Svati on a rainy day is 

told by Bharata himself in the j^pajT^ Chapter 
33, Kasi ed.. Sis. 5-12. Abfiinava only sum- 
marises in prose the verses there. 

Kamadeva 

Though the name of Cupid is not found in 
the lists of the various Naiya and Sangitacaryas, 
we have evidence to show that some work on 
Natya Sastra was current ]n his name. There 
is a work called ?Tra*r^r in the Madras MS3, 
Library (Cat. Vol. XX[T, No. 12,993 ), which 
quotes Kamadeva. 

^cTT lim^K 1" 

This (ala-Iakshana is a ate work and it 
quotes Saradatanaya's Bhavaprakasa. 

Dhenuka 

Damodargupta says in his Kuttanimata : 

5/. 82 

From this verse we come to know that there is 
one Dhenuka who has specially written on Tala. 
Who this Dhenuka is and what his work is, are 
not known. Nor is he mentioned elsewhere. 

Daksha Prajapati 

Siniha Bhupala, in his commentary on the 
Svaradhyaya of the Sangita Ratnakara quotes 
Daksha Prajapati, who is no mere name, but 
in whose name must have been current an 
important work* 



27 



Utpala Deva 

We now come to writers and works regard- 
ing whose verity there is little doubt. From 
Abhinavagupta's Abhinava Bharati, we learn 
that Abhinava's own Paramaguru i.e., precep- 
tor's preceptor in Saivism, Srimad Utpaladeva 
wrote also on Sangiia. Otherwise there is no 
indication of his having written on music. But 
we can surely rely on the Prasishya's evidence 
and take Utpaladeva as an early writer on 
Sangita. Abhinava quotes him four times in 
his Abhinava BharalL The first quotation is 
in the str^^h, Chap. 29. 

^ ^ra ^ww^l^r- srft^qpEfi % 
(?) mw* i 

Vol- IV, p + 21 s Mad. Ms. of Abhinava BharatL 

The second reference is in the same chap- 
ter on the next page of this Volume. 



The third reference is in the Chapter 31 r 
page 84 of Volume IV, here also Abhinava- 
dilfers from his grand-teacher. 

The fourth reference to Utpaladeva is orb 
page 188, Volume IV. 

From this last quotation we may infer that 
Utpala's music work was written in Anus tups. 
Utpaladeva' s date is easily fixed. His srf?T^ r 
511^ ^fw^3 c <T flourished at the end of the 
tenth and the beginning of the eleventh 
centuries. 

(To be continued} 



From the Journal of the Music Academy, 
Madras Vol. Ill No. 1-2 of 1932, 




28 



Some Names 
In Early 

Sangeet Literature 



VY7E must separately 
deal with the com- 
mentators on the Natya 
Sastra. The only com- 
mentator whose work 
has been recovered is 
Abhinavagupta. Even 
his Ahhinava Bharati is 

available in the Madras manuscript only up lo a 
part of the tnerr^rRT and there is some lacuna in 
the seventh chapter- The 8th is also missing. 
The Abhinava Bharati, edited by Mr. R. KavL 
in the Gaekwad series, is a store-house of 
information, giving us material to construct 
a history of early Sangita 1 iterature. Abhinava's 
life was a full and very rich one. His place in the 
history of Kashmir Saivism is as great as 
that of Sri Sankara in Advaiia literature. His 
importance in Atankara, i.e., poetics, is also as 
great. He studied the Natya Sastra under 'the 
good Brahmin' Tota, Bhatta Tota or Tauta, 
the author of Kavya Kautuka, an Alankara 
work upon which also Abhinavagupta has 
commented. Tota was a scholar of Natya and 
music and Abhinava often refers to his inter- 
pretations of the text of the Natya Sastra in 
the ^ifesTC also as Upadhyaya's mala, Besides 
Tauta, one Nrsimhagupta alias Mukhala 
(Cukhala) was the preceptor in music to 
Abhinavagupta. He mentions this music teacher 
in two verses at the end of chapters 20 and 27: 

Since Abhinava refers to Bhatta Tauta in his 
Abhinava Bharati invariably as Upadhyaya 
only, one or two references to one A vary a 
available in the *T*nft^ may be taken to re- 



By Dr. V. Raghavan 

Continued from Bulletin No. 5 



present reference to the 
interpretations of this 
music teacher Nrsimha- 
gupta. Who is this 
Nrsimhagupta? He is 
Abhinava's own father. 
This we know from an 
anonymous commentary 
on Abhinava's Saiva work called ^t^TctTw- 
faffrtf (R. No. 4353, p. 6399. Mad. Cat. 
Triennial, 1922-23 to 1924-25). Vide my article 
in the "Journal of Oriental Research", Madras, 
Vol. VL part 2, on the writers quoted in the 
Ahhinava Bharati, 

Kirtidhara 

The other commentators on the Natya 
Sastra as given by Sarngadeva are Lollata, 
Udbhata, Sankuka and Kirtidhara. Though 
mentioned last in Sarngadcva's list, if it is a 
fact that his work was a regular commentary 
on the Bharata Natya Sastra, Kirtidhara was 
the first known commentator. Abhinava quotes 
him four times. The first reference is in Chap. 4, 
in the discussion on the difference between 
^xr and ?rra^(p. 208, Gaek. Ed,) The other three 
references \o Kirtidharacarya are in the ^qrfe>K, 
the music section of the Natya Sastra. The 
first of these occurs in the sn^rearjir, (Vol 
IV, p t 42). The next is found on p. 50, in the 
same volume. The last reference to him is on 
the group-dances to be performed in the Purva 
Ranga. Abhinava says here that he is going 
to give additional information from Nandi- 
kesvara, on the authority of Kirtidhara, who 
quotes Nandikesvara: 

s$m (wr) fir: =t ^\ ownm fi^t H 



23 



Then Abhinava gives on pp. 51—54 large prose 
extracts from Nandikesvara as given by Kirti- 
dhara. - 

The Sangita Meru of Kohala, in the extracts 
given by Kallinatha therefrom, quotes Kirti- 
dhara, p. 677. So KJrtidhara is earlier than the 
Sangita Meru. 1 

Udbhata, Lollata and Sankuka 

It is now accepted by all scholars that the 
great Alankarika, Udbhata, wrote a regular 
commentary on the Natya Sastra. Abhinava 
refers to his interpretations and views four 
times at distant intervals in his Abhinava Bharati. 
First, he refers to the followers of Udbhata in 
Chap, 6, on the Natya Angus (p. 265, Gaek. 
Ed.). Then in Chap. 9, (VoL 1 1, p. 307, Mad, 
MS.), Abhinava quotes Bhatta Udbhata on 
tr^i. The third reference is on p. 472, 
Vol. II. The fourth reference to Udbhata is 
on p. 479, VoL II, in the chapter on ^t^j. 
This reference shows that Udbhata recognised 
only three Vrttis, and even those three, of a diff- 
erent nature from Katsiki, etc. There is another 
reference which does not mention him but 
presupposes him and his view of the Vtttis, 
(VoL III, p. 4.) 

Here in the first reference, as well as in the 
fourth, Abhinava first gives Udbhata's opinion 
and then Lollata's refutation of Udbhata' s view. 
One of the two references to Udbhata in 
Rajasekhara's Kavyamimamsa also is of the 
same nature. Thus Udbhata was the earlier 
commentator and Lollata and Sankuka came 
afterwards. Udbhata was the Court poet of 
King Jayapida of Kashmir (778—813 A.D.). 

As regards Bhatta Lollata and Sankuka, 
there is no doubt of the fact of their having 
written commentaries on the Natya Sastra, for, 
references to their interpretations of particular 
texts in Bharata are profuse all over the 
Abhinava Bharati. Lollata flourished about 825 
A.D, and Sankuka a little later, about 850 A,D. 

Sri Harsha's Varttika 

Besides these direct commentaries, the 
Natya Sastra had two other commentaries, 
Varttika and Tika. Abhinavagupta quotes 
often Sri Harsha and his Varttika in the first 
six chapters. Altogether there are eight quota- 
tions from Sri Harsha's Varttika. The quota- 
tions are mostly in Arya verses and occasionally 
m prose also. Thus the Varttika was mainly 

*Kirtidhara is quoted often by Jayasenapati in i 



in Aryas and occasionally in prose. Sarada- 
tanaya in his Bhavaprakasa also refers to Harsha 
and his definition of the Vparupaka called 
Totaka (p. 238-1. 5). This Sri Harsha is not 
the Royal dramatist and patron of poet Bana, 
since in a reference in the wferr. to the 
music verse of King Sri Harsha, found in two 
of his dramas, Abhinava does not refer to him 
as the Vartiikakara. It is strange how Abhinava, 
who quotes Harsha so often in the first six 
chapters, never quotes him in the later chapters 
on dance and drama proper and music. Perhaps 
Sri Harsha' s Varttika was available even to 
Abhinavagupta only in fragments at the 
beginning. 

The Tikakara 

The name of the author of the Tika on the 
Natya Sastra is not available. Beginning in 
the 22nd Chapter, there are seventeen references 
to him in the Abhinava Bharati, (mostly in the 

Earlier also there are two references to him 
in Chapter VL Abhinavagupta quotes him only 
to refute him. It appears that the Tikakara 
on the Natya Sastra blundered hopelessly in 
the iwrf^ER:. All the seventeen references to 
him are those in which Abhinava completely 
ridicules him. From one of the references we 
see that the Tikakara quotes Kasyapa (VoL 
IV, p. 2), The Tikakara finds some dis- 
crepancy between Bharata and Kasyapa which 
Abhinava removes, In one reference to the 
Tikakara, we find him quoting Sadasiva and 
there is mention of one as the Guru of 

the Tikakara (p. 25, VoL IV). 

Besides these commentators on Bharata's 
work which dealt with dance and music, there 
are some more names also whom we may take 
as writers on Natya and music from Abhinava- 
gupta's references, 

Bhatta Sumanas 

This writer is quoted in the 32nd Chapter, 
in the ^rp-:^ (Vol. IV. p. 32). Since the 
reference occurs in the ?r*nf^TC f Bhatta Sumanas 
must be the author of some work on music. 
The reference given by Abhinavagupta is to 
his interpretation of a verse in Bharata. 
Perhaps he commented on Bharata, or only 
on the rRufeTC in Bharata or had occasion 
to quote and interpret a verse from Bharata in 
an independent work of his, 

is Nritta— rat naval i which I am editing now. 



24 



Bhatta Vrddhi 

This author also wrote some work on music. 
He is referred to in the dWt^fW (p. 203, 
Vol. IV). 

Ghantaka 

Poet Ghantaka is quoted by Abhinavagupta, 
but only on a topic in dramaturgy, If, however, 
poet Ghantaka also was a commentator on 
Bharata, it follows that he was a writer on music 
as welh 

Sakaligarbha 

From Abhinava Bharati (Vol. JI, p. 480), 
we come to know of a new writer on Ntya 
named Sakali Garbha? He has a curious view 
of five Vrttis in dramas His work on Natya 
might have dealt with music also — undoubtedly 
so, if he is a commentator on Bharata. 

Rahala 

Rahula is an early writer on music. Sarnga- 
deva mentions him among his authorities as 
Rahala. 

Abhinava quotes him thrice, first on the 
difference between Natya and Nrtta in Chap. 4, 
p. 172 (Gaek. ed.), then on p, 197 of the same 
edition and then in the 23rd Chap, on 
P- 38, VoL III, Mad. Ms, The third reference 
is reproduced in Abhinava's faithful follower, 
Hema Chandra's Alankara work, Kavyanusasana. 

TOW* ^mf^mrg^fo aft^rr; i 

Hemachandra, K.A.,N.S. ed., p. 316. 
jft^fl^nfl^ ^rqiTrsfcmrfa *i^n^yiwrwf^- 

AbhL Bhar. 

The context is fr RM ifiw and the 
Alankaras of women *th, ^ etc. Abhinava 
criticises Rahula for holding ?ftrar, ^ etc. 
also to be Alankaras. In the reference given 
above, Abhinava, in the text in Madras Ms. 
refers to Rahula as *rw. It is likely 
that it is a scribal error for tfmpsfR, since 
we find it so in Hemacandra, who is always 
very useful in deciding the text of Abhinava's 
works. He was a Buddhist. We had among Bud- 
dhistsmany such writers on such secular sub- 
jects. One Padmasri is known to us as a Buddhist 



monk who has written the pornography work 
called [ Nagara Sarvasva, from which we learn 
in addition to what we know from the second 
reference to Rahula, that the BuddhSfc 
Sampradaya on topics of Alankara, etc had S 
own deviations and peculiarities, Thus RaS 
either commented on the Natya Sastra or wro e 
a. big i treatise on dance, drama and music Se 
the Natya Sastra. ? e 

Bhatta Yatra 

There is only one reference to Bhatta Ymtn 
m the Abhinava Bharati and that to oily on 
dance It is in chapter 4, p. 208. (Gaek ed ) 
on the difference between Natya and Nnia 
Tf he is a commentator on Bharata, to decide 
which sufficient evidence is not available 
have in him a writer on music also, 

Rudrata 

Aca S r^: gadeVa Rudrata aS a San ^ i£a 

Confirmation of his having written a work 
on music comes from a reference to him by 
Abhinavagupta, Abhinava criticises Rudrata as 
having written without understanding Bharata: 

P- 160 Voh IV. 

This Rudrata is the Alankarika, author 
?j W ™W™ a nkara, whom some scholars 
iden ify with Rudra or Rudra Bhatta, author of 
another Alankara work called Smgaratilaka. 
Rudrata is placed in the 9th century He is 
thus a contemporary of King Avantivarman 
of Kashmir and the great Alankarika Ananda- 
vardhana. Rudrata is quoted by KalHrmtha, 
once independently and, again, as being quoted 
by Matanga, * M 

S.R. p. 82 

Mr. R, Kavi, as usual, without evidence or 
authority, postulates the identity of this Rudrata 
with Medhavi Rudra, another writer on 
Alankara, which is wrong, and again both of 
them with Rudraearya, protege of Kngi 
Mahendra Vikrama Pallava and author connec- 



25 



ted with the Kudumtyamalai music inscription. 
This triple equation is absolutely baseless, 

Bhatta Gopala 

Abhinava refers to this writer on music 
twice. He first quotes him and his m^rfa^l 
in Chap. 12, on p. 332, Voh II, along with 
Bhatta Loltata. He promises here to come to 
the topic of mwm in the ^r^FT and 
accordingly, in the cTMr^, he again quotes 
Bhatta Gopala, who, he says, has refuted at 
length in his Tula Oipika the a*rar*rfrfa of 
his predecessors. 

Vol. II p, 382. 
Vol. II. p. 18L 

Matrgupta 

Matrgupta is referred to by many writers 
and his Anustubh verses on subjects of Natya 
are found quoted in Ranganatha Diksita's 
commentary on the Vikramorvasiya, Raghava 
Bhatta's commentary on the Sakuntala, etc. 
His work should have been in Amistubhs, modell- 
ed after the Bharata Natya Sastra treating of 
music also. For the reference in Abhinava 
Bharati to Bhatta Matrgupta is in the 
(p. 32, Vol. IV,): 

Sarngadeva mentions him as a Sangitacarya: 

The reference in Narada's Sangita Maka- 
randa, p. 13, to one Matragupta is evidently 
only to Matrgupta. 

Matrgupta lived in King Sri Harsa's time, 
607-647 A.D. He was a great poet and was 
later made king of Kashmir. 

Priyatiihi 

This is a very new name in Natya literature, 
which we are given by the Abhinava BhauiiL 
It quotes this writer on Natya on the subject of 
Saindhava, one of the ten Lasyangas: 

$$%m ? g^n ifc Bfei, mm^s 

p, 537, Vol. H 



Priyatithi wrote against Bharata's view and 
Abhinava criticises him for this. 

King Bhoja 

About the time of Abhinavagupta the Para- 
mara King Bhoja ruled at Dhara (A.D. 1010- 
1055). He was a patron of arts and prolific 
writer. Bhoja's literary period was a little later 
than that of Abhinava. Sarngadeva mentions 
Bhoja in his list and Saradatanaya quotes him 
often in music also along with Somesvara. We 
can believe that King Bhoja, master of all 
arts and sciences, wrote on Sangita also but we 
want evidence for accepting Mr, R. Kavi's calm 
assertion that Bhoja's Sangita work was called 
smfa-JT^r^r, which name is only a fancy, built on 
analogy the of the name of Bhoja's great 
Alankara work called Sringara Prakasa, 
Parsvadeva says taht Bhoja gave the technical 
terms music in the Bhandika vernacular in his 
work on music. 

Somesvara 

This reference in Sarngadeva gives So mesa, 
Paramardi and Jagadelcanihipati as Sangita- 
caryas. Saradatanaya in his Bhavaprakasa 
refers to Somesvara along with Bhoja twice. 
Saradatanaya says that he is not elaborating 
music since it has been already dealt with 
by Somesvara and others. The Sangita Samaya 
Sara of Parsvadeva quotes him with Dattila, 
as having dealt with Tala, and with Bhoja as 
having given the technical terms of music in 
the Bhandika Bhasa. This Bhandika Bhasa 
is a vernacular and very highly musical are and 
a grammar of it is available in the Tanjore 
Sarasvati Mahal Library. In that grammar, 
a beautiful story of the origin of that vernacular 
is given. It is said that when Krishna danced 
the Rasa, along with the Gopis from all parts of 
India, and when each sang in her own tongue, 
there arose, in that beautiful medley of tongues, 
the very musical language of the Bhandika. 

Who is this Somesvara who is cited as an 
authority on music? The Editor of the 
Bhavaprakasa in the Gaekwad series, Mr. K.S. 
Ramaswamy Sastrigal, discusses this question. 
In Sangita we know of two Somesvaras. One 
is the Calukya King Somesvara III, who compos- 
ed an encyclopaedic work called Manasoliam or 
the Abhilasitartha Cinlamani, in the year 1131 
A.D. This big work, part of which has been 
published from Mysore and Baroda, is said 
to contain a very big section on music. This 



26 



portion, when published, will light up our field 
very much. It is very likely that it is this 
Somesvara whom Sarngadeva and others 
mention. 

Another Somesvara is known as the author 
of a music work called Sangita JRatnavalL Some 
identify Sarngadcva's Somesvara with this 
Somesvara, 

Bhalta Soma Carana 

But all are agreed that Somesvara was a 
King and Kshatriya. If so, we had another 
writer on music called Soma or Bhatta Soma 
Carana, a Brahmin, The learned Ranganatha 
Diksita, in his commentary on the Vikramorva- 
$iya> Act, IV, quotes him after quoting Matanga, 
on the or the tfft, (p- 89, Nirnaya 

Sagar Edition). 

King Paramardi 

This word is taken by some as an attribute 
of the above-mentioned King Somesvara, 
qt^f H ^tftsit ^FT^^qfe i Mr. K. S. Rama- 
swam y Sastn takes Paramardi as a separate 
name, as a different writer on music, identifiable 
with a king of that name of the Candei dynasty, 
a scholar and patron, who reigned between 
1165-1203 A.D. This latter view is the justifi- 
able one Parsvadeva in his Sangita Samaya 
Sara (on p. 24, TrL Edn.) quotes King 
Paramardk in the s^r^^, Chapter 4, 

srmte ^?r^t wrf^R^^ n" si. 6. 

Nothing more is known of King Paramardi 
or his work on music. 

Nanya Bhupala 

Through the kindness of my professor, I 
got the manuscript of the work of Nanyadeva 
from the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, Poona. 
The work is incomplete and is generally called 
in the colophons Bharata Bhasya. But two 
of the colophons style it as Bharata Varttika. 
The work quotes Narada's Siksa and the author 
of the zm on the iTR^rSm, Sikshas, 

of Panini and Apisali, Bharata, Matanga 
and his Brhaddesi, Tumburu, Kasyapa and 
Br hat Kasyapa, Visakhila, Yashtika, Dattila and 
Abhinavagupta. Two names among the writers 
quoted must be noted, They are sages ^rrfefi 
and of whom we do not hear else- 

where. References to these two are on p. 64a, 
The Kaliha Parana is referred to by Nanyadeva 



on page 132a, as containing the treatment of 
the git a called *rtf^W- 

The colophon has sometimes this suggestive 
wo rd— ^rrVfittt ? * From this we come to 
know that Nanyadeva 5 s work is very big and 
divided into four sections according to the four 
A bh ina yas — ■^rrf^fi , wfrRi, ^Iik^ and srrcrc- 
The first section- — Atnsa — called 3Tfefi, deals 
with Sangita. The portion dealing with music 
alone is available in the manuscript above 
referred to and even this runs to 221 sheets, 

Nanyadeva, as one mentioned by Sarnga- 
deva, is earlier to Sarngadeva. Nanyadeva was 
king of Mithila, He calls himself by the name 
f^rfcj^rc and <K£UHiJj-d[fcrof&- He has another 
name also— Raj anar ay an a. 

p. 12a. 

His work called Bharata Bhasya and Bharata 
Varttika has another name — Saras vati Hrdya 
Bhusana or Sarasvati Hrdayalankara or Saraswati 
Urdaya Alankara Ifara, as described in the 
different colophons. 

Hindu Raja and Ksetra Raja 

Of these two authorities enumerated by 
Sarngadeva, we have no further knowledge. Both 
look like historical personages. Kobala, as 
quoted by Kallinatha, quotes one%TO^ on the 
called ^fer*fciit<!J on p. 688. If Ksetra 
Raja is the same as this Ksemaraja we ' may 
take him as a writer earlier than the Sangita 
Mem. 

Lohita Bhattaka and Sumantu 

These are two more WTiters quoted in the 
Sangita Menu They are certainly historical from 
what we see by their names, but further light on 
these two is no yet available. We know of 
Sumantu who was a sage, who is mentioned 
in the Maha Bharata and Asvalayana as one 
of the five straws, not ¥p^RRS, He was 
one of those who edited the Maha Bharata after 
Vyasa. He is mentioned thus — 

W*^i tfefr wn^pr i 

^fen^ri: fli^iw jpftfer; i 



27 



Saradatanaya 

Now let us come to the third source of in- 
formation, the Bkavaprakasa of Saradatanaya, a 
work on dramaturgy ascribed to the period 
1175-1250 A.D. 

Saradatanaya, if the above given date is 
correct, was living in Sarngadeva's time. 
Saradatanaya was, as his name shows, born of 
the grace of Sarasvati. In the 7th Chapter of 
his Bkavaprakasa he takes up Sangita and after 
elaborately telling us of the physiological process 
of ^iKkqfif, just touches music and leaves it 
saying that he need not deal with it further, since 
Bhoja, Somes vara and others have treated of it 
From this same reference in Chap. 7, we learn 
that Saradatanaya himself produced a compan- 
ion work, certainly earlier, on music called 
Saradiya, 

p. 194. 

Further, Saradatanaya refers to many other 
works and authors on Natya and music. The 
following are noteworthy since they are not 
referred to elsewhere : ^ft^t, q]?qfeipf and 

Gandharva Nirnaya 

The qp^lf^ir is a work on music, 
treating of Natya also by the way, Saradata- 
naya refers to it on p. 266 in Chapter 9, in the 
description of the minor Rupaka variety 
known as 3^r?cq^ t which is a jfldM^, an operatic 
composition : 

'zrf^grcrt^ spmt i 

The author of the Gandharva Nirnaya is 
not known. 

Drauhini 

The quotation in the Bkavaprakasa in the 
name of Draukini, on page 239, line 1., is on 
Vrittis and Nataka: 

From this reference we can take him to be 
an author on drama only. But Rajasekhara 
in his Kavyamimamsa quotes him twice and 
from the first quotation there, we can surely 
make out Drauhini as an author of some music 



work. This reference makes Drauhini praise 
music as the 5th Veda, 

K.M.p. 2Gaek Ed. 

Thus Drauhini's work, like works of the 
early period, comprehensively dealt with Sangita 
proper, with its three departments. Tt is also 
likely that Drauhini is only Druhina's son, Le. y 
Narada. 

Vasuki 

Vasuki is a mythological name. Vasuki is- 
quoted twice by Saradatanaya. He is earlier to 
the Bharata Natya Sastra, if we rely upon a 
verse attributed to him by Saradatanaya, which 
is found quoted by Bharata. Vasuki is not 
enumerated by Sarngadeva or Narada nor is he 
quoted elsewhere. Narada's list however con- 
tains a name which, if it is taken in the 
meaning 'snake', may refer to Vasuki, but this 
is quite far-fetched. 

Kalpavalli and Yogamala 

The Kalpavalh or Kalpalata and the Yoga 
Mala Samhita quoted by Sarngadeva are defini- 
tely works on Natya but probably these two 
devoted some of their chapters to the Samana 
tantra (allied science) music also. The Yoga- 
mala Samhita seems to be in the form of a 
dialogue in which Siva teaches Natya, etc., to 
Vivasvan Surya. Surya seems to have some 
part in the history of Natya and Sangita. 

Vyasa and Agastya 

Saradatanaya mentions at the beginning 
of his work that he studied and learnt the 
schools of the following writers on Natya — 
Sadasiva, Siva, Parvati, Gauri, Vasuki, Sarasvati, 
Narada, Kunibhodbhava, Le, Agastya, Vyasa, 
Bharata's pupils, and Anjaneya. Of these we 
have already dealt with Narada, Vasuki and 
Anjaneya. How Sadasiva and Siva, and Parvati 
and Gauri are separate and different we are 
not able to understand, Vyasa fa quoted now 
and then by Saradatanaya. There are two 
possibilities. Some of the Pur anas of which 
Vyasa is the general author contain chapters on 
music. Opinions quoted as Vyasa's may refer 
to opinions contained there. But such referen- 
ces are not traceable to the Sangita text in the 
Puranas, The story of the origin of Natya 
which Saradatanaya attributes to Vyasa, the 
exact number of acts in ^ferfefi according to 
Vyasa referred to by Saradatanaya, are not 



28 



traceable to the known Pur anas which deal with 
drama and music, The other possibility is that 
there was some work on Natya current as 
Vyasa's. Anyway Vyasa is not a mere name, 
since Saradatanaya attributes to him two definite 
opinions on pp, 55 and 251 . The name of 
Agastya does not seem to appear anywhere else. 
As a matter of fact, in literature, Agastya is a 
rare name in Sanskrit. It is only in Tamil 
that he is the eponymous father of all literature. 
Saradatanaya, as the editor of his work suggests, 
was thus possibly a South Indian, But in the 
body of the Bhava Prakasa itself, no quotation 
from Agastya is found. 

Parsvadeva 

The Sangita Samaya Sara of Parsvadeva 
published in the Trivandrurn Sanskrit series is 
mainly a work on music, but it treats of 
dance also in Chapter six. Parsvadeva, as his 
name indicates, was a Jain. He and his father 
were great scholars of the Natya Sastra. 
The upper limit of his date is easil fixed. He 
quotes these authors: 

1, King Bhoja. 2. King Somesvara. 
3- King Paramardi. 4. King Pratapa. 5. 
Digambara. 6. Matanga, 7, Sage Bharata 
and 8. Dattila. 

Of these, the references to Kings Bhoja, 
Somesvara and Paramardi are valuable and they 
fix the upper limit to Parsvadeva's time. King 
BJaoja ruled between 1010 and 1055 A.D. 
Paramardi flourished about 1165 A.D. and 
Somesvara about 1131 A.D. Parsvadeva is thus 
later than the 12th century, Sarngadeva does 
not refer to Parsvadeva, Singa Bhupala (about 
1330 A.D.) quotes him often in his commmen- 
tary on the Sangita Ratnakara. Thus his date 
falls between 1165 and 1330 A.D. 

The manuscript of the Sangita Samaya Sara 
in the Madras Mss. Library (No, 13028) gives 
much information about the author Parsvadeva. 
Parsvadeva was the son of Gaun and Adtdeva 
and disciple of one jtcf^T, wh o was himself 
the pupil of ^h^^;* The paramaguru was 
thus a Jain and born of Brahmin parents. 
Parsvadeva was a convert to Jainism, Parsva- 
deva mentions in the beginning that he consulted 
the following authorities: #5f, 
3RcfT, %&tm> ^fw t ^tf^r and ^rnr^- Parsvadeva 
gives the name of his family as ^fesr^q. The 
colophons mention the names of his guru and 
paramaguru and the titles of Parsvadeva. 



In the first verse in Chapter I, Parsvadeva 
says that he is going to to! low Bhoja and 
Somesvara in giving the , technical names of 
music in the Bhandika Bhasa: 

S.S.S. II. L 

We know of certain new writers for the first 
time from Parsvadeva. 

King Pratapa 

King Pratapa is qoted on p. 29 : 

Though Pratapa and Vikrama are synony- 
mous, it is vain to identify this Pratapa with 
the Vikrama quoted in the Sangita Makaranda. 
See, below, separate note on king p rata pa's 
Sangita chudamani. 

Digambara 

Parsvadeva refers to Digambara or Digam- 
bara Suri thrice in the chapter on dnce. The 
third reference is reverentially in plural Evi- 
dently Digambara Suri is a Jain and most pro- 
bably a teacher of Parsvadeva. The three 
references are these — 

1 . On the three kinds of *r^V> a ^5f?cT — 
R^^^tfe ii p. 60. 

p. 63. SI, 89. 
p. 63 Sh 93. 

Thus not only in philosophy and poetics, 
but in such subjects as drama, dance, music and 
pornography, also the Buddhist and Jain 
contributions to Sanskrit literature are immense. 

Sankara 

Parsvadeva quotes Sankara in the m^T^ri^ 
i.e. the fifth, p. 42: 

epf ^v*m %fir ^^^^ ft^fr t 



29 



it may be that this Sankara is a historical 
writer on music, or only God Siva. 

The Puranas and Music 

As remarked above, references to Vyasa 
may refer to chapters on music in some of the 
Puranas. The Puranas that contain chapters 
on music arc— the Visn udharmo 1 1 ara , the Vayu 
and the Markandeya. 

The Markandeya 

Of these the Markandeya does not regularly 
treat of music. In Chapter 21, it gives the story 
of Asvatara, the king of the serpents. He did 
penance and requested Saras vat i to give him 
his brother Kampala and to impart to him and 
his brother the music lore. Saras vat i did so. 
A.svatara and Kambala propitiated Siva with 
this music. Here, incidentally, in mentioning 
Sarasvatrs boon, the to pics in music learnt by 
the two Naga brothers are summarily given: 

$m *m ^ ^rrw « 
# # * 

Sis, 52—56. 



The Vayupurana 

In the second Khanda of the Vayupurana? 
Chapter 24, latter half, and Chapter 25 deal 
with music, The former speaks of seven 
Svaras, three Gramas and the Ragas belong- 
ing to each Grama— twenty in ir^^R, 
fourteen in ^;-ts?rt, and fifteen in rrr^R^H?, the 
etymology, devaia and description of each 
Raga, and ^jmt. The 25th Chapter is devoted 
to thirty Gita Alankaras, 

The Visnudharmotiara 

The third Khanda of the Vimudhar molt ara 
contains a big art supplement treating of gram- 
mar, lexicography, prosody, poetics, drama- 
turgy, dance. Sangila and painting. Chapters 
18 and 19 here deal with music. In the beginn- 
ing the matter corresponds to that in the 
Vayupurana, though in the Visnudh armo tiara 
it is all in Sutra like prose. The following are 
dealt with — 

Svaras, Gramas and the Ragas of each of 
the three Gramas, three Vrttis, ^rfe ^Mrrir, and 
^g^tfe, nine Rasas and the S varus for each Rasa, 
the three Lavas and the Lava for each Masa ) ten 
Jails, four A lank ar as TO^rfs;, sra^n^f, SFB^n^Fcf, 
and srfl^rffi^ and the several kinds of songs, viz t 

*nfer, W%<IT and pTffjflfer. 

Here this chapter called fttfd^sr ends. 
The next chapter dealing with music is devoted 
to mfiWi instruments. 



30 



Sw^r tG^fe frt^ tkJLX^ \y A ovi^ ^ 

LATER SANGITA LITERATURE' 

By 

Dr. V. EAGHAVAN 



IN an earlier paper, I surveyed the Sanskrit 
Sangita literature from B bar at a tip to 
Sarngadeva. In this paper, I propose to 
follow up the subject and speak of the litera- 
ture from the time of Sarngadeva up to recent 
or modern times. The sources of information 
for this account of mine of later Sangtta 
literature, are mainly three. Firstly, the cata- 
logues of Sanskrit manuscripts, of libraries of 
India and of foreign countries, which contain 
lists and brief descriptions of music works 
and of their authors. Part of the material set 
forth by me is from personal examination of 
Sanskrit music manuscripts in libraries to 
which I could have access, the libraries at 
Tanjore, Madras and Adyar; T went through 
completely all the music manuscripts in the 
Madras Government Oriental Manuscripts 
Library ■ the Adyar Library and the Saras vat i 



Mahal Library, Tanjore. When! visited Poona, 
I read the music manuscripts in the Bhandar- 
kar Oriental Institute Manuscripts Library. 
As regards the works described in other 
catalogues, I could naturally have no access 
to them and their descriptions are therefore 
meagre and derived only from the descriptive 
catalogues but supplemented or corrected in 
some cases by a reference to the descriptions 
of the same works in other catalogues; some- 
times 1 had occasion to borrow or secure 
transcripts of some of these manuscripts and 
examine I hem. The second source of infor- 
mation is the un-published music manuscripts 
and works themselves which I had examined. 
While { was going through the music manus- 
cripts in the Madras, Adyar, Tanjore and 
Poona libraries, as also those borrowed from 
some of the other libraries, 1 came across a 

L Published originally in the Journal of the Madras Music Academy, Volume IV, 1932 this paper has been, 
for the purpose of the present publication, revised completely and made up to date. Some of the libraries had 
not at that time, in J 932, brought out their catalogues carrying descriptions of these music mss,, but these cata- 
logues have since been, in some cases, published. Also some of the works described here were still in manuscript 
in 1932 when this paper was originally written and as these too have since been printed, the account given of 
these lias suitably been revised. In this connection, my more recent papers "Music in the Deccan and South 
India" in the Bihar Theatre, No, 7, 1956, pp. 5-3 U and "An Outline Literary History of Indian Music" in the 
Journal of the Madras Music Academy, XXIII, 64-74 may also be consulted. 

Since writing this, J have visited a great many mss. libraries and noted a number of other authors and works 
on music and dance, but of these t I can write only in a separate paper. 



1 



number of writers and works quoted in each 
of those works; this provided a considerable 
number of music authors and works. Thirdly, 
the commentaries on the Sanskrit dramas and 
Alankara works have also furnished a certain 
amount of data on music authors and works ; 
e.g. the commentary of Raghavabhatta on 
Sakuntala, of Katayavcma on the Sakuntala and 
the Malavikagnimitra, of Ranganatha on 
the Vikramorvasiya, of Kumarasvamin on 
the Alankara text called Prataparudriya have 
quoted some music works which have also 
been gathered here, 

I have tried, as far as possible, to determine 
the dates of the works and authors. In certain 
cases, however, I could give only the century 
in which the work was written and in some 
other cases, only the upper and lower limits 
of the dates of the works, I have arranged the 
works in the order of their dates, A more 
interesting classified arrangement could be 
made, Works have been produced in a group 
or in succession, in parts of North India, in 
Orissa, in Andhra and at Tanjore, under kings 
or succession of kings who have been patrons 
of the arts of music and dance. While these 
facts are mentioned then and there, I have 
not arranged the works in such a geographical 
or dynastic manner. Closely related to the 
geographical classification is another, which 
may be held very necessary. It is the division 
of all these works into older ones dealing with 
the common music of India, and later ones, 
again sub-divided into works of the Hindustani 
and Carnatic schools. This is surely shown 
then and there but I have not made a classi- 
fication on this principle. 

I have first treated of regular and major 
works, then given those works of which the 
dates are not known or which are like hand- 
books, and finally, I have appended a list of 
fragments and tracts. In this collection are 
some works the names of whose authors are 
not known and some authors, the names of 
whose works are yet to be traced, The works 
noticed are of varied nature. There are some 
which completely deal with Sangita, L e. of 
Gita, Vadya and Nrtya. There are some which 
omit the last and certain others which omit 
Vadya also. Among works dealing with Gita 
only, there are works treating of Ragas alone. 
I have also noticed works on one single branch 
like Tala and on one Vadya, as for instance 
Mrdanga only, A few modern Sanskrit music 
works are also noticed to give a completeness 
to this account of later Sangita literature. 



The regular works here noticed number 
about 120, 

Sangitaratnakara of Sarngadeva 

(1210-1247 A.D\) 

The Sangita Ratnakara of Sarngadcva is the 
most well-known Sanskrit Sangita treatise and its 
place in Sangita literature resembles that of the 
Kavya Prakasa of Mammata in Alankara 
literature. The work is not original but is the 
only standard work known for long and largely 
drawn upon and borrowed by all later writers 
for whom it set the model. Hence also its 
similarity to the Kavyaprakasa. The work is 
edited in the Anandasrama Sanskrit Series in 
two volumes with the commentary of Chatura 
Kail hatha. The Adyar Library has brought 
out an edition of it with the commentaries 
of Kallinatha and Singabhupala. 

Sarngadeva belongs to a Kashmirian stock. 
His genealogy is thus given by himself. His 
grandfather was one Bhaskara who migrated 
to the South from Kashmir and his father was 
Soddhala who attached himself to the court 
of King Singhana Deva of Devagiri, modern 
Daulatabad, who ruled from 1210-1247 A. D. 
Thus Sarngadeva flourished in the first half of 
the 13th century. Sarngadeva himself was 
employed under the king in the office of the 
Royal Accountant, for he refers to himself 
often by the title "Srt-kamna-agranV. 

A number of earlier authorities are 
referred to by Sarngadeva. At the beginning 
of his work a list of them is given and in 
the body of the text also many are quoted. 
Sarngadeva is versed in all branches of 
learning. From the Sangita Ratnakara itself, 
we learn that Sarngadeva wrote a Vedantic 
work called Adhyatma Viveka, In music and 
Natya Sastra, Sarngadeva is very learned. He 
bases himself especially in the last chapter on 
Nartana on Abhinavagupta's commentary on 
the Natya Sastra of Bharata. Many verses 
here simply put Abhinavagupta's words in 
verse-form. Sarngadeva refers to himself 
often by the title Nissanka—nhe doubtless*, 
meaning thereby that his scholarship in music 
is thorough. He invented a Vina with his 
name <Nissanka\ as also a Prabandha and two 
Talas named after himself as Nissanka and 
Sarngadeva. 

Commentaries 

The importance of the work is also known 
from the many commentaries upon it. Next 



2 



perhaps to Bharata's N city a Sastra, it is the 
only music work on which other music 
scholars have written commentaries- The best 
commentary seems to be that of Chat Lira 
Kallinatha, called the KalanidhU which, by 
virtue of its prevalence and popularity, was 
very early published along with the text in the 
Anandasrama Sanskrit Series, Poona. 

Another commentary is by King Simha- 
bhupala, a well-known Alankarika and author 
of the RasarnavQSudhakara* Of this valuable 
work, only the portion on the Svaradhayaya had 
formerly been available in print, having been 
published from Calcutta in 1879. Even copies 
of this printed portion were rare. More recently 
a revised and complete edition of this com- 
mentary, along with that of Kallinatha, has 
been published by the Adyar Library. Though 
Simhabhupala's commentary is not as valuable 
as that of Kallinatha, yet it has several im- 
portant features, not the least noteworthy of 
which are the quotations it makes from old 
and rare works, e.g. the commentary on Dattila 
called Prayogastahaka. Simhabhupala, it is 
well-known, was a King of the Recharla 
Dynasty of Nayudu kings of Rajachala in 
Andhra country and flourished in the middle 
of the 14th century A,D, The recent effort 
therefore to take him to Mithila or to the 
line of the Maithila Rulers of Nepal 1 is 
meaningless, 

Oppert notices another commentary on 
this work in Vol, I of his catalogue of 
Sanskrit Manuscripts in South India— No. 6258. 
The commentary is called Sangitaratnakara- 
chandrika. The author of this Chandrika on 
the Ratnakara is not known, 

There seems to be another commentary by 
a writer named Kesava, We know of its 
existence from Govinda Dikshita's Sangita 
Sudha. The Sangita Sudha says:— 

tr?TT £^Wdl*4$ R^rTT 

p. 152 Madras Music 
Academy Edition 

L Journal of Indian History, XXXV LiU. pp. 432-3. 



The Sangita Sudha passes vehement strictures 
about the usefulness of the Ratnakara which 
it says, contradicts, makes no sense and is 
insufficient. Similar caustic remarks are also 
passed by Govinda Dikshita on the com- 
mentaries of Kallinatha and the commentator 
called Kesava mentioned above, 

The Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts from 
Gujarat, Kathiawad, Kachch, Sindh and 
Khandes, describes on p. 274, a commentary on 
the Ratnakara by Hamsabhupala, which is 
evidently a mistake for Simhabhupala, who 
has already been mentioned. This mistake is 
repeated in the introduction to the Ananda- 
srama edition of the Ratnakara, where we find 
Hamsabhupala counted as a separate and 
additional commentator. 

The Bikaner Catalogue has entered, wrongly, 
as another new commentary, only an unidenti- 
fied fragment of Kallinatha' s Kalanidhi. 

Besides the Sanskrit commentaries above 
noticed, there is a commentary on the Ratna- 
kara in Hindi called Setu by Gangarama, a good 
manuscript of which is available in the 
Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjore, (6598 a). 
Gangarama was patronised by the Vaghela ruler 
Visvanathasimha in whose court there was 
intense musical activity, 1 Visvanatha Sinha's 
time is 1833-54, 

In Tamil, we ? have a metrical version of the 
Sangita Ratnakara and a part of it is available 
in Tanjore Library, (No, 634 b). This Tamil 
version of the Ratnakara is also quoted in an- 
other half-Sanskrit and half-Tamil Natya work 
of a very late date called in two manuscripts 
of it Suddhananda Prakasam, but which has 
recently been printed under the title Bharata- 
slddhanta by the Madras Government Oriental 
Manuscripts Library. See pp. 114-5 for quota- 
tions here from the Tamil version of the Sangita 
Ratnakara. 

The place occupied by Sarngadeva and his 
work are known not only by the above-noted 
commentaries in Sanskrit and Hindi and the 
translations in regional languages but also by 
the fact that up to the 18th century all music 
works reproduced or praraphrased the Ratna- 
kara for their earlier part dealing with ancient 
music. 



I. See "Sanskrit and Hindi Works of Vishvanatha 
Simha" by P. K< Code, 'New India Antiquary, IX\ 
pp, 1-12. 



Ragamava 

(Earlier than 1330 A.D.) 

There is a work of this name quoted by 
Somanatha in his Ragavibodha and by Danio- 
dara in his Darpana. Its author is not known . 
I have not come across this in any manuscript 
catalogue. 

As will be seen in the course of this paper, 
the Ragamava is used for the compilation of a 
small section on music by Sarngadhara in his 
anthology called the Sarngadhara Paddhati. 
This anthology is a production of the first half 
of the 14th century. Its compiler Sarngadhara 
is taken as the grandson of one of the pre- 
ceptors of King Hammira, who as we will 
presently see, was the Chowhan King of Mewar 
and author of a music work called Sangita 
Sringara Hara. The date of Hammira is, 1283 
A. D. (Vide Introduction to the Gaekwad 
Oriental Series edition of Ramacharita, p. 8, by 
Mr. K + S + Ramaswami Sast.ri), Therefore 
the Ragamava is earlier than 1330 A,D, 

The Ragamava, though often quoted 
independently as a separate work of that name, 
occurs also as the name of the chapter on Ragas 
in Nandikesvara's big work, Bharatamava, 
dealing with dance and music completely. All 
the chapters of the Bharatamava are called by 
the name of ^Arnava" and the manuscript of 
the Bharatamava of Nand ikes vara in the 
Tanjore library calls its Natya chapter by the 
name Natyamava. 

Sangitarnava 

Besides the above said Ragamava, there is a 
separate and independent work dealing with 
music and dance called Sangitarnava. This work 
is quoted in the Sangitadarpana of Damodara 
and on a topic of dance by Appalacharya in his 
Sangita Sangraha ChintamanL (Adyar Library 
manuscript), Narayana Si vayo gin's Natya 
Sarvasva Dipika also quotes this work. (p. 34, 
Ms. in the Bhandarkar Oriental Research 
Institute, Poona). 

Sangita Sringara Hara of King Hammira 
(1283 A.D.) 

Among the numerous works quoted by the 
well-known music writer Bhava Bhatta,we have 
one called Sringara Hara or Sangita Sringara 
Hara. A Ms. of this work is described in S,R. 



Bhandarkar's report of Ms, in Rajputana and 
Central India (pp. 54 and 92-93): 

We hear of three Hammiras, one of whom 
is a Mohammedan king* Leaving him, we 
have Hammira, a Chowhan King of Mewar, 
mentioned by his son Allaraja alias M allaraja, 
in his Alankara treatise called Rasaratnadipika. 
This Hammira is a man of letters and is 
celebrated in the Hammiramahakavya of 
Nayachandrasuri. Nayachandrasuri gives 
Samvat 1339 or A,D. 1283 as the date of the 
beginning of reign of his hero Hammira. 

In the list of kings of Mewar itself, we 
come across a Hammira who is mentioned by 
King Kumbhakarna of Mewar, as the grand- 
father of his grandfather, in the beginning of 
his commentary Rasikapriya on the Gitagovinda. 
Kumbha reigned from 1433 to 1468. In the 
Rajaputana Gazetteers, Vol. 2 A., Mewar 
Residency, this Hammira is assigned to A.D. 
1364 and this fact, as also the fact that his 
son and successor, according to this Gazetteer 
as well as the genealogy given by Kumbha, is 
not Allaraja but is Khet Singh or Kshetra 
Simha makes it impossible for us to identify 
the two Hammiras. Perhaps it is this ancestor 
of Kumbha that wrote the Sangita Sringara 
Hara, 

The following writers are referred to by 
Hammira :~ 

(!) Jaitrasimhanarapati : Of this royal writer 
on music we know nothing more. In the lists 
of this same dynasty of the Guhilots of Mewad, 
to which Hammira and Kumbha belong, there 
is a king named Jaitrasimha whose time is 
1213 A.D. (Vide p. 153. Vaidya's Mediaeval 
Hindu India, Vol 3, P, 153), 

(2) One Vikrama is mentioned and he may 
be identical with the Vikrama found in the list 
of music authorities given by the Sangita 
Makaranda, 

(3) Simhana : This King may be Simhana J, 
of the latter part of the 11th, and the com- 
mencement of the 12th centuries or Simhana 
II, 1209-1247 A.D, Both of them are Yadava 
Kings of Devagiri and the latter, Le. Simhana 
II, is the patron of Sarngadeva, author of the 
S. Ratnakara. It is likely that Hammira refers 
to this patron of Sarngadeva, 



4 



(4) King Ganapati : This king is most likely 
the well-known Kakatiya Ganapati, King of 
WarangaL He is well known for his patronage 
of arts and letters. We do not know if he 
himself has written any work on Natya or 
Sangita. Perhaps it is only as a patron that 
he, like Simhana, is mentioned by Hammira. 

Nrittaratnavali of Jayasenapati 

Under this Ganapati flourished Jayasenapati 
who was in charge of the elephant corps of his 
army — Gajasadhanika. This Jayasenapati 
wrote a work on Natya called the Nritta 
Rainavali. This Nritta Ratnavali is available 
in the Tanjore Library in two manuscripts and 
in a fragment in the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 
and based on all these and other material, I 
have edited this work critically for the Madras 
Government Oriental Manuscripts Library. In 
the beginning of chapter V, Jayasena gives the 
date of his patron, Ganapati. See pp. 158, my 
edition for the G- O. Manuscripts Library, 
Madras, and Introduction to the same, p, 9. 

^TT^T ^fsr ^-^pji-^fr^rFR: | 

This Kali 4355 gives us the date of 
Ganapati as C. 1253 A. D. Therefore the date 
of Hammira's S. Sringara Bar a may be 
between 1253 and 1364 A.D, 

Gitaratnavali 

Jayasenapati wrote a companion work also 
on music proper called Gitaratnavali and he 
himself refers to this in his Nrittaratnavali: 

p. ill of the edn. 
by the present writer 

(5) Jayasimha : He is also a king, one of 
the more than one Jayasimhas found among 
the Chalukyan kings. 

It is perhaps after this king Hammira, 
author of Sangita Sringara Ham that the Raga 
Hammir of North India is named, 

Gopala Nayaka 

(1205-1315 A D.) 

Stories are told of Gopala Nayaka and of 
his great musical talents, 

It is said that he was a South Indian and 
the name also would confirm it. He was taken 

5 



along with himself by Allaudin Khilji (1295- 
1315 A.D.). Dr. Isvari Prasad, author of 
Mediaeval India, assigns Gopala Nayak to the 
14th Century. He is said to have had frequent 
discussions on music with Amir Khusru, poet 
and musician. (Med. Ind. P. 542). 

The Chaturdandi Prakasika mentions him 
twice from where we have to suppose that he 
was most renowned in the singing of Chatur- 
dandi, i.e. Gita, Prabandha, Thaya and Alapa, 
which word also he must have popularised . 

m^^%m%^m sr^qfassrr: u {? )II 57 

J*: fa^^flfel fSt q>HvFnw: II IX 5 

pp. 21 y 75, Madras Music 
Academy edition 

See also p. 153 of the Madras Music 
Academy edition of Tulaja's S. Saramrita where 
the second verse given above is cited. 

Perhaps Gopala Nayaka was also called by 
the expression ChaturdandL But both the re- 
ferences in Venkatamakhin are now obscure to 
us. 

Kaliinatha, very much earlier than Venkata- 
makhin > refers to a Raga-Kadamba — compo- 
sition of Gopala Nayak from which it is clear 
that he composed some songs besides having 
been unrivalled master in the practice of the art. 

—under S.R. IV. 153-5. &j 

The section on Music in the Sarngadhara 
Paddhati 

(C 1300-1350 A. D.) 

The Sarngadhara Paddhati is a well-known 
Sanskrit anthology which contains a collec- 
tion of select Sanskrit verses on all subjects. 
The date of Sarngadhara is the 13th or the first 
half of the 14th Century. He is the grandson 
of Raghavadeva who was one of the preceptors 
of King Hammira just now spoken of. 



One of the subjects compiled in this anthology 
is music. It is the eighty-first subject and is 
given as Gandharva Sastram. In the end, 
Sarngadhara says that the section was compiled 
mainly from Ragarnava, as we have already said. 

The Music-section extends from Sloka 1942 
to 2328, giving thus a brief account of music 
in 3S6 Anushtubh slokas (pp- 290-309, Peter- 
son's Edm), 

Contents : — It first gives a brief description 
of Nada, from which it passes on to Svara and 
Raga. Then six features of good singing are 
given : 

fft ^ % ^TH *iwer W I 

Then follow the definitions of Vaggeyakara, 
Sishya, Gay ana and mention of the flaws of a 
musician, after which is taken up the composi- 
tion called Salagasuda. Then the Talas 
Dhruvaka> Mantha, Pratimantha, Nissaruka, 
Adatala, Rasaka and Ekatali are described. 
Sixteen varieties of Dhruva are defined together 
with the number of Padas, Rasa etc. for each 
of them. Then follows similar treatment of 
the other Talas Manthaka, Pratimanthaka etc. 
The next subject is the composition-types called 
Suddha Suda Gita and Rupaka; then seven 
- Gamakas and the phenomenon called Pratyan- 
tara are described, The definition of Pratyautara, 
which pertains to a composition, is rather 
perplexing : 

Sarngadhara then takes up Svaras, Gramas, 
Jatis and Ragas, He names 36 Pravartaka 
Ragas: 

The subjects which follow relate to tala, 
gana, varna-prastara, laghu-guru-pluta-lakshana 
and tala-prastara. Finally there is a small and 
interesting section culled from Ayurveda about 
medicinal prescriptions to aid or improve one's 
voice and singing. The section ends with the 
mention of the sources ; 

The music portion is from Ragamava; the 
Dhruvas from works on metrics; the medicines 
from Ayurveda, 



Sangita Sudhakara of Haripakdeva 

(1309-1312 A.D>) 

The Madras Government Oriental Manu- 
scripts Library has a work on music and Natya 
called Sangita Sudhakara, (Triennial Catalogue 
1910-11 to 1912-13, R. 779, containing two 
chapters; and Triennial Catalogue 1919-20 to 
1921-22, R + 3082, containing the rest, Chapts. 
3-6). The Adyar. Tanjore and Trivandrum 
Libraries have also manuscripts of this work. 

The author is one Haripaladeva, a king. 
He gives his genealogy and glory in the intro- 
ductory verses His grandfather was one Soma- 
li ath a. The name of his father is not legible, 
Haripala had the title 1 VicJiara-chaturrnukhcC 
was a prolific writer, author of a hundred 
works. He says of himself, 

He was master of the theory and practice of 
music. 

He calls himself Vina- iantra- visarada , expert 
on the Vina, and proficient in composing in six 
languages : 

*m *m <rt f^rc^aw srrar firr I 

In the beginning of the first chapter, he says 
that he once went to the holy Sriranga in the 
Chola land to worship Sri Ranganatha. He 
was entertained there by a band of Natas, 
Nartakas and Gayakas at whose request he 
gave an exposition of music and dance through 
this treatise of his on music and dance named 
Sangita Sudhakara, 



6 



The colophon to the work runs thus : 

The last verse of this work praises the 
author thus : 

He is called King Hari also and perhaps 
it is he who is referred to in the following verse 
in an anonymous work on music and dance in 
the Madras Oriental Manuscripts Library : 

D. No, 12987 

The Harindra referred to by the Sangita 
Sudha may also be this same Haripaladeva: 

There is a Chalukyan king named Haripala, 
in the family of the Chalukyas of Anhilwad. 
If we identify the author of the S. Sudhakam 
with him, we -have to take this music work to 
C, 1150 which is his time. In support of this 
we may cite the references to Gurjaradesa in the 
introductory verses describing the author. 

The Sangita Sudhakara is in six chapters. 
It deals with Natya in Chap. 1, with Tala in 
Chap. 2, and with Yadyain Chap- 3. Chap. 4 
is devoted to drama and Rasa, Chap. 5 deals 
with music proper from Sruti to Suddha ragas. 
This chapter is called Raga Lakshana. The 6th, 
the last chapter, is Prabandhadhyaya with a 
small section on Gayaka-Lakshana. Haripala 
has some noteworthy views on topics of Natya 
Sasira like Vritti and Rasa which I have 
noticed elsewhere 1 , 

Vidyranya's Sangita Sara 
{1320-1380 A.D.) 

Vidyaranya is a well-known figure in 
Sanskrit literature of South India and in the early 
history of the kingdom of Vijayanagar, That 
he has also written a work on music is known 



7* Journal of Oriental Research, Madras t VoL V1L 
pp. 103-4 and my Number of Rasas, Adyar Library, 
pp> 144-150. 



from the following references in the Sangita 
Sudha of Govinda Dikshita : 

p, 152, sl.4Q6, Madras 
Mnsic Academy edn. 

Having given some Ragas, the S. Sudha 
says that it gives some more from the work of 
Sri Vidyaranya* 

" T^Wrf ^TT^ i 

p. 152, si. 413, Madras 
Music Academy edij., 

From Vidyaranya's work are given 15 
Melas and 50 Ragas which, Govinda Dikshita 
says, came to be in greater vogue since the time 
of Vidyaranya, the "fortune of the Karnataka 
kingdom*'. 

^Tr^^fq^rwrr: \ 

pp. 152-3, si 414 of Madras 
Music Academy edm 

From the references in the S. Sudha of 
Govinda Dikshita we can take it that the classi- 
fication of the Ragas into Melas is older 
than Ramamatya, author of the Svaramela- 
kalanidhi. Mr, M. S. Ramaswami Ayyar, on 
p. lxi of his Introduction to his edition of 
the Svaramelakaianidhi, tries to make Rama- 
maty a the discoverer of the Mela scheme, I 
think the references on the subject to Vidya- 
ranya in the S. Sudha, given above, will show 
that Mr. M. S. Ramaswami Ayyar's opinion 
is not correct. 

Again j in the 3rd chapter, the Prakirnaka 
(p. 255,. si, 44, 47, 48, 49/ Madras Music 
Academy Edn.) of the S, Sudha, Vidyaranya 
S ric ha ran a and his S* Sara arc mentioned several 
times. The work is referred to here as con- 
taining clear descriptions of various kinds of 
Gayakas. On p. 281, (Madras Music Academy 
Edn. si. 53), Vidyaranya is quoted by the 



S. Suiha on the derivation of the word Biruda 
as the name of a Prabandha, 

Another Sang it a Sara 

A Ms. called Sangita Sara is described in 
the catalogue of the Bikaner Library (p. 526, 
Ms. No. 112). The manuscript is dated Samvat 
1563 or 1506 A.D. and is described as a com- 
pendious treatise. But it docs not seem to be 
Vidyaranya's S. Sara; it may be a less impor- 
tant work like the anonymous S, Sam which 
the Sangita Narayana and other Orissa music 
works quote and which is a treatise on North 
Indian Music, 

Sangita Upanishad and Sangita -Upanishatsara of 
Sudhakalasa 

(1323 and 1349 A. D.) 

We come to know of a work of this high 
sounding name of Sangita Upanishad from its 
quotation by Bhava Bhatta. From p. 274 of 
the Catalogue of Manuscripts from Gujerat, 
K'ichchh etc., we learn of the existence 
of such a work. We see there that the 
Sangita Upanishad is the basic text and 
$.U> Sara is the author's own commentary 
thereon and that both of them are avail- 
able at Ahmed abad. Two manuscripts of the 
work under the single combined name, 
Sangi t o pa nisha tsar a , are described also on 
pp. 528-9 of the Bikaner Citalogue, (Mss. 
Nos. 1126, 1127). Another Ms, of it is 
preserved in the Dahrtaxmi Library, Nad i ad. 
The first Bikaner Manuscript contains only 
two chapters on Ragas and Talas, 

We know the author as a Jain, by name 
Sudhakalasa, from the colophon which runs 
thus; 

The teacher of the author is given as one 
Rajas^khara Sun. 

The work is in six chapters dealing with 
music and dance. 

In the last verse of the last chapter we are 
also given the date of the work by the author 
himself. 



That is, the basic text, the S. Upanishad \ was 
written in Samvat 1380 or 1323 A,D. and, 
the commentary, Sara, upon it in Samvat 1406 
or 1349 A,D. 

Simhabhupala's Commentary on the Sangita 
Ratnakara 

(C. 1330 A.D.) 

This work has been noticed above under 
the Sangita Ratnakara. 

Vasantarajiya Natya Sastra, 

{Earlier than the 14th century) 

Nandilla Gopa, in his commentary on the 
drama, Prabodha Chandrodaya, Kumaraswamin 
in his commentary on Prataparudriya, his 
father Maliinatha in his" commentary on the 
epic of Magha and Sarvananda on Amavakosa 
quote a treatise on Naiya Sastra called 
Vasantarajiya. Katayavema's commentaries 
on the Maiavikagnimitra and Sakuntala of 
Kaltdasa also quote from this work. The 
commentary on the Sakuntala by this same 
Katayavema (Tanjore Mss, Library; New Cat, 
Vol. VI IT, No, 4306) gives us some information 
about this Vasantarajiya in the introductory 
verses: 

^t^fwpfr^ TC^mr^lf^T^ n 

Thus Vasanta Raja alias King Kumaragiri 
wrote the Natya work bearing his name. It 
was he that asked Katayavema to comment on 
the three dramas of Kalidasa. Katayavema 
was his brother-in-law and minister. The time 
of King Kumaragiri is C 1386-C 1402 A.D. 
The work must be earlier than the 14th 
century, 

Sangita Vidya Vinoda 

{Earlier than the 14th Century) 

The above-mentioned Katayavema, in his 
commentary on the Maiavikagnimitra (p. 7, 
Nirnayasagar Edm), quotes a work on music 
by name Sangita Vidya Vinoda. The verse 
quoted praises Siva as embodying in himself 
Lasya and Tandava and is perhaps the Man gala 
Sloka of the chapter on Nartana in this work, 
I have not come across any Ms, of this work. 
We can say that the work is earlier than the 
14th century. 



The work is quoted also in a text called 
Natya Sarvasva Dipika, also known as Adi 
Bharata of Vamanandayogin, available in a 
manuscript in the Bhandarkar Oriental Research 
Institute, Poona (37th sheet), In the Sang if a- 
rnukt avail of Do van a, a treatise called Vidya- 
vinoda is quoted twice on the Alatachari, 
popularly called Hoila and the Uttanotpluta 
called Garana in Tamil and Alaga { ?) in 
Madhyadesa (pp. 74, 85-6, Transcript, Sarasvati 
Mahal, Tanjore). 

I. MWRtHiH TO W^f^^TT 1 

tr ^ qsiM<n : s^wn ( *tt ) flrara 1 1 

It is likely that the Vidyavinoda quoted by 
the Devana is the same as the Sangitavidya- 
vinoda quoted by Katayavema. The work 
appears to be a South Indian production, 

Sri Vidyachakravartin's Bharata Sangraha 

{Beginning of the 14th century) 

In the beginning of the 14th century, 
a writer of immense scholarship in various 
branches flourished, under the patronage of 
Hoysala King Vira Ballala Ul of Dvarasa- 
mudra in Mysore. His name is Sri Vidya- 
chakravartin and he was a great Saivacharya 
and Alankarika, In his commentaries on the 
two Alankara treatises, viz., the Kavyaprakasa 
of Mammata (Trivandrum Skt Scries, p + 378) 
and the Alankara Sarvasva of Ruyyaka (Madras 
Oriental Mss, Library, Ms, p. 146) he quotes 
a work of his on Bharata, dance and music, 
called Bharata Sangraha, (See also my note 
in the Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental 
Research Institute, Vol XIV, pp, 257-8.) 

His part on, Ballala I1L ruled between 1291 
and 1342 A D. 

Rajakandarpa 

(Earlier than the end of the 14th century) 

We do not know why a work on music is 
called Rajakandarpa. Perhaps it is so named 
after the name of its author or patron, whose 
identity i have not so far been able to make 



out. As a writer on music, he is quoted by 
Mallinatha, in his commentary on SL 40, Canto 
VI, Kumar asamhhava, on the definition of 
Karana, a kind of playing on the Mridanga: 

Later than Mallmatha, Arunagirinatha, 
another commentator on Kumar asambhava 
Quotes Rajakandarpa in this same place, 
Mallinatha is assigned to the end of the 14th 
century and Rajakandarpa must be earlier. 

*y VemabhupaJa's Sangita Chintamani 

{End of the Nth century and the beginning 
df the 15th) 

Vemabhupala alias Vira Narayana was the 
Komati King of Andhra well-known to students 
of Sanskrit literature as the patron of the 
poet Vamana Bhatta Bana and the hero of 
the poet's prose work, Vemabhupala Charita. 
The King is credited with an Alankara work 
called Sahitya Chintamani, a commentary on a 
Saiva work and a commentary on the Amaru 
Sataka, 

Vemabhupala was a Kondavidu Prince 
and flourished about the end of the 14th and 
the beginning of the 15th centuries, He pro- 
duced a music work called Sangita Chintamani, 
a companion to his Sahitya Chintamani and 
perhaps, the real author of both the works 
was his court-poet Vamana Bhatta Bana. 

Two manuscripts of this work, one up to 
twelve chapters and another incomplete; are 
available in the Trivandrum Palace Library. 
(Trivandrum Palace Cat., p. 80, Nos. 1415 and 
1416.) 

Sangita Chintamani and Sangitamrita of 
Kamalalochana 

From the above Sangita Chintamani of 
Vemabhupala must be distinguished a work 
of the same name mentioned by T Aufrecht 
in his Catalogue Catalogorum as described in 
p. 96 of Keilhorn's Catalogue of Mss. in the 
Central Provinces. The author of this 
S. Chintamani is one Kamalalochana and from 
Aufrecht' s Catalogue we come to know 
that this Kamalalochana wrote also another 
music work called Sangitamrita. 



9 



The Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal Library 
contains a fragment of a manuscript named 
Sangita Chintamani. (Burnei! Cat,, 11569a; 
New Cat., 10715.) The work is in bad Sanskrit, 
It is not identical with Vema's work* Accord- 
ing to a note in the beginning of the 
manuscript and the colophon, this manuscript 
contains the 'Pranava-viveka-adhyaya', the first 
chapter only. Many writers request God Siva 
to give out the Gita Sastra and he begins : 
SfTScT TTrmm^r srw^f^r : I The 

colophon runs thus: ql^fldfe'tiW'ft 

m^-<r?^ fa^fr s^Wm; i it js 

interesting to know from this work that the 
Pranava of music is not OMbut the syllables 
TA and NA in TEN A and TAM NAM, as also 
the TA' DA and HAM used in singing. These 
constitute so to say the Panchakshara -mantra 
of music: ^tr^ WTT^T ^t^T ^R^;l 
STW^tPT TS^TSK ^tYTcT: [I From these 
syllables, gan as are formed Ta-ta-na, Na-na-na, 
Ta-na-na and so on and the text goes on to 
say what groups among these are auspicious 
and what are to be avoided, and then gives 
the presiding devata, chandas and phala 
(auspicious result) of these. In this connection 
it wilibe useful to draw attention to the Mss. 
of another work called Tananighantu available 
in the same Tanjore Library, dealing with this 
same subject, (See below) 

Gopendra Tippa Bhupala's Taladipika 

{1474 A. D.) 

Gopendra Tippa Bhupala is welhknown in 
Sanskrit Alankara literature as the author of a 
commentary on Vamana's Kavyalankara Sutra 
and VrittU He was a king of the Ilnd, Saluva, 
dynasty of Vijayanagar and belonged to the 
latter haif of the 15th century. He was the 
elder brother of Saluva Tirumalaraya who 
ruled as a Vijayanagar Viceroy at Tirumala- 
rayapuram near Karaikkal in Tanjore Dist, 1 
According to Dr, $. Krishnaswami Iyengar's 
Sources of Vijayanagar History, (Madras 
University, pp. 62-3 and p. xi), Saluva Tippa 
married Harima, sister of Devaraya II (1423- 
46), his son was Saluva Gopa, and Saluva 
Gopa Tippa our author was Gopa's son and 
"he was the Governor under Devaraya II and 
later, in the viceroy alty of Mulbigal." The 
time of his grandfather Tippa is Saka 1352- 

if, Sec Epigraphkal Report of Madras for 1923, para 
77, and South Ind Inscriptions, It p> 317 ff. 
There is an inscription of his dated 1475 A,D. See 
also X of the Madras University, July 1950, pp, 
20-25, paper qu this Tirumalaraya, 



64, i.e., 1430-1442 A.D- and of Ms father Gopa 
Saka 1352, i.e., 1430 A.D. Our author has 
an inscription dated 1474 A + D- (No. 482 of 
1922, Rep. 1923, para 77, See also Arch. 
Sur. Rep- 1908-9 p.167). 

The Madras and Tanjore Manuscripts 
Libraries contain copies of a work of this 
Gopendra Tippa on Tala, called the Tola 
Dipika. (Madras Library : Trien. Cat. 
1910-11 to 1912-13, R.770; Tanjore Burnell 
Cat, p. 60 b, Mew Cat. 10828-30.) The Tala 
Dipika is a small work in three chapters ; 

The colophon of the work runs thus :- 

The author quotes in this work Bharata, 
Sailadin, i.e. Nandikesyara, Hanuman and 
Sariigadeva. A work called Chudamani is 
quoted and criticised and most likely, it 
is King Pratapa's 5, Chudamani, already 
described. The copy of the Taladipika in the 
Tanjore Library contains a Telegu gloss upon it 
called Sangitadipika. 

In one of the introductory verses to his 
commentary on Vamana's Alankara Sutras % 
Gopendra Tippa says that he had already 
written a work on Tala, which does not seem to 
be the Taladipika under notice and in addition 
to it, a work on Natya, which we have not yet 
been able to secure: 

The additional Tala work is said to be a 
composition of songs on Siva illustrative of all 
the TaJas, Perhaps these songs arc found in 
the Taladipika itself. 

Chatura Kallinatha 

(Commentator on Ratnakara, 1446-1465 A,D.) 

Chatura Kallinatha, as already noted, is 
well-known as the author of the commentary, 
Kalanidhi, on the & Ratnakara of Sarngadeva. 
In the introductory verses in his commentary, 
Kallinatha describes the Karnata Desa lying 
between the Kaveri and Krishna rivers, Vidya- 
nagara or Vijayanagar on the banks of the 



30 



Tungabhadra and the kings who ruled there. 
The following kings are mentioned 

Vijaya I (14424423 A D) 

Devaraya II (1423-1446 A.D.) 

Immidideva (alias Mallikarjuna Raya) 
(1446-1465 A.D.) (Vide Sis. 5-9). 

Then Kallinatha describes himself, 
giving his genealogy thus : 

Sandilya gotra 



Lakshmidhara alias Lakshmanacharya 

(married Sri Narayani) 

Kallinatha (Sh 10) 

Kallinatha flourished under King Immidi- 
deva who ruled in the middle of the 15th 
century. He was thus a contemporary of the 
author of the Tiruppuhazh songs, Sri Aruna- 
girinatha. He referes to himself as Sakshat-, 
Sangita-Devata. The colophons mention his 
titles as Abhinava Bharatacharya, Ray a bay a- 
kara, i.e,, Raja Vaggeyakara, and Todara Majla. 

Kallinatha is relied upon and quoted by 
many later writers like Kumbhakarna, 
Somanatha. Tula] end ra and others. He shows 
his learning in many branches of knowledge, 
besides music and dance. He quotes the 
Bhagavad Gita, Vagbhatacharya (medicine), 
Ayurveda, Bhamati, the commentary of Vachas- 
pati Misra on the Sutra Bhashya of Sri Sankara- 
charya, Hiradatta, the grammarian, Chandovi- 
citi and Vritta Rafnakara (two works on 
metre), Kirana (Sivagama) and two Alankara 
works, Kavyaprakasa and Bhavaprakasa. 

Among writers and works in the field of 
music, he quotes on Ragas a large portion of the 
music work Aumapatam which was noticed 
by me in my earlier paper on "Some More 
Names in Early Sangita Literature.'" 1 In the 
commentary on the Nartanadhyaya, he simi- 
larly gives a large extract from Kohala's 
Sangita Meru which work was also noticed 
by me in the above said paper. Matanga and 
Bharata are often quoted. Other writers and 
works quoted by him, of whom T have spoken 

L Journal of the Madras Music Academy, Vol. III., 
pp. 99-100, 



in my paper on "Early Sangita Literature^ ^ 
are Yoga Yajnavalkya, Yaj naval kya Smrti, 
Visvavasu, Tumburu, Kohala (these five quota- 
tions on the number of Srutis are reproduced by 
Tulaja), Nandikcsvara, Vena, Dantila, Kamba- 
Iasvatara, Kasyapa, Yashtika, Aumapatam 
and Arjuna. Abhinava gupta and his great 
commentary on the Natya Sasira of Bharata 
are quoted, as noticed above, and the famous 
Gopala Nayaka is once quoted. 

King Kumbhakarna 
(1433-1468 A.D.) 

Reference was made to this writer under 
Sarngadeva and Hammira. Kumbhakarna or 
Kumbha Rana was a ruler of Mewar— Meda- 
pata. He is a master of music and Bharata, 
and has made solid contributions to the litera- 
ture of both. 

Most well-known among his works is his com- 
mentary called Rasikaprlya on the Gila Govlnda 
of Jayadeva, which is printed by the Nirnaya- 
sagar Press, In the introductory verses in 
this commentary s Kumbha gives his ancestry. 
He belonged to a race of Dvijas of whom the 
royal saint Bappa was the greatest. They 
were called Guhilas. Hammira was the next 
greatest ruler. (See also Rajputana Gazetteers, 
Vol. 2-A, Mewar Residency.) 

Hammira— Greatest of Mewar Rulers, 
died in 1364 A.D. 

Khetsingh— (Kshetra Simha) 

Lakka— 1382-97 A.D. 

[ 

Mokal— a son bv another wife, 
1397-1433 AD. 

[ 

Kumbha~~1433-1468 A.D. 

(See also : Maharana Kumbha, by Harbilas 
Sarda.) King Kumbha was as great a scholar 
as he was a ruler. He defeated the Gurjara 
king, the Yavanas and the Mlechhas and crown- 
ed himself as king of Chitrakuta. He refers 
to one Rohim as his sweetheart. In the annals 
of Bhakti literature he figures as the husband 
of the famous lady saint Mira Rai. In the 
very big colophon at the end of his commen- 
tary on the G ita Govinda, he has titles which 
praise him extravagantly as the very embodi- 
ment of Nada-murtiman-n&da. He is referred 
to as Abhinava-bharatacharya, Sangita-mim* 
amsa-mamsala-matij etc. From many other 



11 



references and from the introductory verses to 
each canto, we see that he could sing well. 

From the evidences in his Rasikapriya on 
Gita Govinda, we learn that he wrote a large 
work on Natya, music, drama and dance, called 
Sangita Raja, This work is quoted in the 
Rasikapriya twenty-one times. Two of the 
quotations give the author as Kumbha, 

JTW^T: J^T^m ^fr^^T^^T It 

From these quotations of Sangita Raja, we 
see that, in the Prabandhadhyaya of that work^ 
Kumbha has examined and described the songs 
in the Gita Govinda^ which, when he later 
commented on the Gita Govinda, he quoted. 
We are able to gather that Sangita Raja is a 
big work, planned on the model of Bharata's 
Natya Sastra, and treating of all the subjects 
dealt with by Bharata. Sangita Raja is quoted 
on Alankara, on Metres, on Rasas, etc. The 
chapters are called Ratnakosas — Pathyaratna- 
kosa, Nrityaratnakosa, etc. 1 There is a Ms. of 
the first chapter of this Sangita Raja called the 
Pathyaratnakom in the Bhandarkar Oriental 
Research Institute. (No. 365 of 1874-80). The 
manuscript contains 23 sheets and treats of 
language, Sanskrit and Prakrit, Pada, Vakya, 
prosody and rhetoric and some topics of 
music. 

The Sangita Raja is otherwise known as 
Sangita M imams a and it is in accordance with 
it that Kumbha is called Sangita-mimamsa* 
mamsala-matL A complete manuscript of this 
big work is noted by Keilhorn in his Catalogue 
of Manuscripts in Central Provinces (p. 96) 
and two manuscripts of it are also available in 
the Anup Library, Bikaner. On the basis of the 
latter manuscripts, the Pathyaratnakom was 
published as number 4 of the Ganga Oriental 
Series in 1946, by Dr. Kunhan Raja. More 
recently (1957), the Rajasthan Research Institute 
issued an edition of the Nriiyaratnakosa chapter 
of this work on the basis of a Baroda manuscript 
and the Bikaner manucsript. From this chapter 
it is clear that Kumbha has drawn from 

1. Vide my article on this work in the Annals of 
the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol XIV, 
Parts III and IV, 1932-33. 



Kallinatha's commentary on the SangUaratna- 
kara which he quotes twice (pp. 74, 134). Else- 
where I have shown that Kumbha uses Java's 
Nrittaratnavali also. The Sangita Raja describes 
itself in the colophons as a work in 16,000 
verses, Shodasasahasri. According to a state- 
ment at the end, the work itself says that it 
was completed in A.D- 1453 (Samvat 1509). 
One fact that should not be left unnoticed in 
connection with this work is that in some 
manuscripts the work is said to have been 
redacted by one Kalasena, a King, for the sake 
of his court-dancers and as Kalasena' s date 
is given here as A-D. 1502, there is hardly any 
ground for suspecting Kalasena as the real 
author of the work. Kalasena, it is clearly 
stated, was another chief whose genealogy also 
is given elaborately at the beginning. 

In the Rasikapriya, another music work by 
Kumbha is also mentioned, viz., Sangitakrarna- 
dipika. 

In Kumbha's Chitorgarh inscription, there 
is the additional information that he wrote also 
four plays of the Natika class. 

In the Anup Library, Bikaner, wc have a 
manuscript of Kumbha's epitome of the 
Kamasastra, Samkshepa Kama Sastra. 1 

The Ananda Sanjivana of Raja Madanapala 

(Earlier than 1428 A. D.) 

From the Bikaner Catalogue and the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal Catalogue we come to know 
a work on music called Ananda Sanjimna 
written by a king named Madanapala (p. 509, 
Manuscript 1090, Bib Cat,; ASB Cat. XlV.55), 
This work treats of Ragas and other music 
subjects, like instruments and of dance also. 

The manuscript above noticed is dated 
Samvat 1585, i.e., A.D. 1528, Therefore, the 
work itself is earlier than the first quarter 
of the 16th century. 

The Sangita Suryodaya of 
Laksh m inar ay ana 

(1st quarter of the 16th century) 

This is a work on music produced in the 
court of King Krishnadeva Raya of Vijaya- 

1. See Introduction to the Bikaner edn T of the 
Pgthyaratnakosu. 



12 



nagar. The author Lakhsminarayana was a 
protege of that famous royal patron of arts 
and letters. The work is available in Madras 
Government Oriental Manuscripts Library 
(Triem Gat, 1922-23 to 1924-25, R, 4516). 
The introductory verses describe the city Yidya- 
puri, i.e., Vijayanagar, King Nrisimha, his son 
Krishnadeva Raya and his conquests. The 
author gives his own genealogy as follows : 

Bharadvaja Gotra 
Kesavamatya — Gouramamba 

Bhandaru Vitthala— Rukmini 

I 

Lakhsminarayana alias Lakshmana. 
His Guru in music was one Vishnu Bbattaraka. 

^"*FRf ^fw^fe ^T^T^rpTT cRg^T^T^T^f 
# * * 

Like Kallinatha and Ramamatya, he had 
also the titles of Rayabayakara and Todara- 
malla. Rayabayakara is a corruption of the 
Sanskrit name Raja-vag-geya-kara ? royal 
musician, expert in singing and composing- 
'Bayakara' is an Apabhramsa for L Ubhaya- 
kara, i-e, 'Dhatu-matii-kara', which means 
Vag-geya-kara. Says the Sangiia Sudha in 
Chapter HI: 

inr^F g <r*rT *fftr fireEt ^rf^r i 

pp. 252-3, Madras Music Academy edn. 
The colophon runs thus : 

(- c* 2. - - "\. ^ 



The work is in five chapters and treats of 
dance also, The contents of the five chapters 
are : Tala, Nrrtya, Svaragita, Ragajati, Pra- 
bandha. The Madras manuscript is incomplete 
as there is a gap in the most important chapter 
on Ragas. In the Sarasvati Mahal Library, 
there is a manuscript of a text called Matanga- 
bharata (No. 10667) which is really a portion 
of the Sangitasuryodaya. (See p. 31 of my 
Introduction to the Nrittaratnavali of Jaya- 
senapati), 

Krishnadeva Raya ruled between 1509 and 
1529 A. D. and this fixes the date of the work, 

Ragadipika 

A work of this name, without the name of 
its author, is quoted by Lakhsmidhara in what 
is called Bharata Sastra Grantha which we 
shall notice presently. The work must be 
earlier than the 16th century which is the 
date of Lakhsmidhara, protege of Arivitu 
Tirumalaraya of Vijayanagar, 

Ranga Lakshmi Vilasa 

The above noted text, as also Lakshmi- 
dhara's commentary on the Gita Govinda 
named Srutiranjani (available in the Madras 
and Tanjore Manuscripts Libraries) quotes a 
work of the name Rang a Lakshmi Vilasa 
which deals with Raga, Tala and Natya. The 
Sru tiran jan i q u ote sit twice. 

Vamadeviya 

A similar work quoted in the above-said 
Lakshmidhara's Srutiranjani h what is called 
Vamadeviyam; it is quoted on the dance called 
Charana. 

f?f€r tf^t^i ^i^Tf^r^Tif^^ etc* 

Bharata Sastra Grantha 

(of Cherukun Laksmidhara) 
{16th century A.D.) 

There is a manuscript of the name 
Bharatasastragrantha in the Bhandarkar 
Oriental Research Institute, Poona. This is not 
an independent or regular work. It is an irregular 
fragment of Cherukuri Lakshmidhara's SrutU 
ranjani on the Gita Govinda, as I have shown 
in my Note on this manuscript in the Annals 



13 



of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 
XVIIUi, 1937, p. 198-9, 

Gita Prakasa 

(First half of the 16th century) 

The Sangita Narayana and Sangita Sarani, 
two works in the Madras Government Oriental 
Manuscripts Library, quote often a work 
called Gita Prakasa, The Sanglta Narayana 
quotes it often : 

<l) ^PffRf 3 : ^*F«f ^crftrfa* I 

(2) It is quoted on p. 44 as opining that it 
is the Raga Dcsapala which is called Kedara, 

(3) It is quoted on the three Avayavas or 
parts of a Prabandha: 

(4) On p. 59, King Narayana says that the 
writer Harinayaka has given the definitions of 
many difficult Prabandfras in his work and 
that the illustrations for these can be had in 
the Gita Prakasa. 

(5) On p, 84, a song in Mallara Raga is 
quoted from the Gita Prakasa. From these 
quotations we can see that the Prabindha 
chapter of this work is most valuable and is 
indicative of the Lime of the composition of 
the work. The song closes thus: 

wrlrr ^f^q* etc. 

From this it is clear that this work also 
was produced under the patronage of a 
Gajapati, King of Orissa Ganga Dynasty, a 
predecessor of King Narayana. Krishnadasa is 
a composer whose songs are found in the 
Prabandhadhyaya of the Gita Prakasa. 
Krishnadasa was a contemporary of Sri 
Chaitanya. As shown below, he is the author 
of the Gita Prakasa. 

The Sangita Sarani of Kavi Narayana 
quotes a Ksh ud ra-P ra ba ndha in Gandakari 
Raga called Chit rap ad a composed by Rama- 
nanda Kaviraya, as found in Gita Prakasa : 

*r^r Tftcf^^Rf ^isfepw etc. 

The song closes thus : 



This Rudra is Virarudra Gajapati, the Utkal 
king, whom his contemporary, Krishna- 
devaraya of Vijayanagar* defeated and whose 
daughter the latter married. Ramananda, 
author of the above song was his court-poet, 
He was also, like Krishnadasa, a contemporary 
of Chaitanya. 

There is a Ms. of the work in the Madras 
Govt. Oriental Mss. Library (Trien. Cat, 
1919-20 to 192 1-22, R. 3 176&) The work is in 
15 chapters which are as follows : 

(?o) ^r^r^r (??) (U) <rm- 

(U) JTT^^TT: I 

Mr. Suryanarayana Rao of Bangalore says 
in his History of Vijayanagar that Prataparudra- 
deva of Orissa, whose daughter was married by 
Krishnadevaraya ruled between 1504 and 
1532 AD., whereas R r D. Banerji Sastri, in his 
History of Orissa, gives 1497 A D. as the date of 
his accession and says that he ruled up to 
1541 A D. Prataparudradeva was a pupil of 
Sri Chaitanya who lived long in Orissa. Rama- 
nanda Ray a (Kavi), whose composition we 
noticed above, was an officer under Pratapa- 
rudradeva. He was Governor of Raj am ah end ra 
and was himself a follower of Chaitanya. Besides 
his musical compositions, Raman an da wrote 
a Sanskrit drama called Sri Jagannatha Vallabha 
Nataka and several other minor works, 
(Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society, 
Vol. VI. 1920, pp. 448-53.) 

From more detailed examination of manu- 
scripts of the Gita Prakasa, it has been found 1 
that its author is Krishandas Badajana Maha- 
patra who nourished in the court of Mukunda- 
deva Gajapati (1559-68 A. D.) 1 

Ramamatya's Svaramelakalanidhi 

{1550 A t D>) , 

Ramamatya, contemporary and brother-in- 
law of Rimnraja of V.jayanagar, flourished in 



1. See Grissa Historical Research Journal, Vol VII, 
P> 2, July 3958, the article Two Unknown 
Sanskrit Poets of Orissa' ; see also Journal of the 
Madras Music Academy, XXIX, p. 86. 



14 



the 16th century. He wrote the work at Rama- 
raja's request. His work Svara m elakalan idh i 
has been edited with introduction, etc. by 
Mr, M.S. Ramaswami Iyer in the Annamalai 
University series (1932). 

According to the colophon at the end of 
the work, it was finished in 1550 A. D. 

In SL 27, Chap. 1, Ramamatya mentions one 
Kallappa D^sika as his Matamaha, maternal 
grand father. In Ch. 1, SI. 4, there is reference 
through paronomasia to the Kalanidhi of 
Kallinatiia on the Ratnakara. 

Before the edition mentioned above, there 
had appeared two editions of this work, one 
in South India and another with Marathi notes 
by Mr, Bhatkhande. 

The Works of Fundarika Vitthala 

(1590 A.D.) 

The Bikaner Catalogue describes three 
works of Pundarika Vitthala, Raga Mala, Raga 
Manjari and Sadraga Chandrodaya. All these 
three works are available in print. The 
Sadraga Chandrodaya is cafed wrongly Shadraga 
Chandrodaya in Bikaner Catalogue which 
consequently describes the work as defining 
six primary Ragas. The work mentions in the 
last verse that Vitthala belongs to the village 
Satanurvanear the hill called Sivaganga in the 
Karnataka country, 

Vitthala was a Brahmin of the Jamadagnya 
Vamsa and all the colophons to his work specify 
him as Karnata-jatiya. The introductory 
verses of the work (Sis. 2-6) give information 
about Vitthala* s patron. Vitthala flourished in 
the court of the Mohammedan King, Burhan 
Khan of the Pharaki family which ruled between 
1370-1600 AiX, at the city called Anandavalli, 
in the South, a place three miles west of Nasik. 
The father and grandfather of this Burhan 
Khan are given as Taj Khan and Ahmed Khan. 



The S.R.Chandrodaya is in three chapters 
called Svara-prasada, Svartfamela-prasada and 
Alapti-prasada. ^ 

The Ragamala is another small work of 
Vitthala on ragas which, he says, he wrote for 
one Kapilamuni: ^ ^fi^*fW XFl- 

The work mentions in a verse at the end 
that Vitthala's mother was Nagamba: ^rrnr^x 

(S-eBhandarkar Institute Descriptive Cat 
XII p. 385.) 

According to the statement in the above 
mentioned verse, the Ragamala was composed 
in A,D. 1576. 31T% ^^^r^^^Tf^T^ 

xxx ^Trwm^^wrt^^m^rf^ i 

The Ragamala has an easier vernacular 
version called Sugama Ragamala written by 
one Kalyana Kavi who flourished under the 
brother of Madhavasimha, viz. Manasimha. 
This is also printed. 

The southerner Vitthala later went to the 
north. His third work Ragamanjari praises Akbar 
under whom were the two brothers, Madhava- 
simha and Manasimha, kings of the Kacchapa 
Vamsa. The Ragamanjari was written for 
Madhavasimha, a devotee of Vishnu whose 
genealogy also Vitthala gives in the introduc- 
tory verses : (Kacchapa Vamsa— King Bhanu- 
Bhagavanta Dasa— Madhavasimha and Mana- 
simha), Madhav Singh and Man Singh are 
the well-known Jaipur chiefs who were vassals 
of Akbar (15564605). The Ragamanjari is a 
small work on Northern Music in two chap- 
ters on Svara and Raga. Among Ragas, 
Vitthala gives 15 new Parasika Ragas in the 
end, There is a Ms. of it in the Bikaner 
Library and it was printed in Bombay (1918)* 

Besides these works, two more were written 
by Vitthala, viz. Nritya or Nartana Nirnaya 
and Sangita vritta (?) ratnakara. The Tan^ 
jore Library contains a work of Vitthala in 
three chapters, dealing with music and dance, 
bearing three names on the cover sheet, Raga- 
mala, Sangitavrittaratnakara and Nartana 
nirnaya. The Nartana Nirnaya states that it 
was written to please Akbar : 

XXX f^fow t 1 

1. See P. K. Code, the Chronology of the works of 
Fundarika Vitthala of Karnataka, Journal of the 
Madras Music Academy, Vols. V1-V1II, pp. 1 19, 
126 



15 



Pundarika Vitthala was not a mere musi- 
cian, but one versed in other branches of 
Sanskrit literature also ; and we have a lexicon 
compiled by him called the Sigkrabodhinir 
Namamala and a short work on Nayika — ■ 
Nayaka called Duti karma Prakasa. (See my 
article , The Non-musical works of some leading 
Music Writer s\ Journal of the Madras Music 
Academy, XX, pp. 153, XXI pp, 182-3). 

Somanatha's Ragavibodha 

(1609 A. D.) 

The Ragavibodha of Soman at ha is pnnted 
and a Marathi gloss on it is also available 
in print. It received the attention of scholars 
very early, there being an English translation of 
it and some analyses of it in Europe also, The 
text of Somanatha with an English translation 
was pnnted also by Mr. K B. D*val in Sanskrit 
Research, Bangalore, Vol. I ? Nos. 3 and 4, 
under the title Theory of Indian Music as 
expounded by Soman at ha. It was later edited 
with an introduction and a translation in English 
by Mr. M. S, R-imiswami Iyer of Madras 
but the editor's omission of Somanatha's own 
commentary on his text from this edition is 
regrettable. The Adyar Library then brought 
out an edition with the author's commentary 
(1945). 

In Slokas 3 and 4, Chap. I, Somanatha 
gives some information about himself- His 
family, himself and his father had the title 
*Sakala-kala* ) 'well-versed in all arts'. His 
grandfather is mentioned as Menganatha and 
father, Mudgala Surh 

The woik is in four chapters devoted to 
Sruti-Svara, Vina, Mela and Riga. The third 
chapter dcels with Ragas and the fourth with 
some more Rigas, more elaborately, and in 
the order of the time of the day when they 
should bs sung. The work is in Arya verses, 
accompanied by a commentary of the author 
himself. Soman at ha draws mostly upon 
Sarngadeva and KaUinatha whom he mentions 
often, Other music writers quoted by him 
are Matanga, Kohala, Hmuman, Umapati and 
Parsvadeva- One noteworthy work quoted by 
him twice in chap, 4 and which we have noticed 
already is the Ragarnava. 

Somanatha is learned in branches of know- 
ledge other than music also. Th? Kavyalankara 
of Rudrata and the Kavyaprakasa of Mam- 
mata, two Alankara works, the Madhaviya 
NtghanWj the Kosas, Amara and Vaijayanti, 



and the Chandas of Pingala are quoted by him. 

Somanatha gives the date of the composing 
of his work at the end thus :— Ku-dahana- 
tithi-ganita-sake i.e., Saka 1531, or A.D, 
1609. 

S.R.Bhandarkar's Catalogue of Manuscripts 
in the Deccan College (XIX, I, p, 430. 
Manuscript No. 276) mentions a manuscript 
called Raga Vibodha Viveka and describes it 
as a commentary on Somanatha' s R>V. There 
is no separate commentary on the R. Vibodha 
by another writer and the commentary above 
noted is nothing but Somanatha's own gloss 
on his verses. 

Somanatha, like Vitthala, had other literary 
interests, besides music. It may be noted that 
while describing Ragas, he mentions also the 
Nayikas or types of heroines appropriate to 
each of the female Ragas. On this subject of 
Nayika-Nayaka-bheda, Somanatha wrote a 
work called Jatlmala. He wrote also a poem 
called Anyoktimukiavali. 1 

The Sangita Sarvasva of Jagaddiiara 

{Between the 14th and 17th centuries) 

Jagaddhara is a well-known writer who has 
written commentaries on the Alankara work 
of Bhoja, Sarasvati Kanthabharana and some 
dramas like Bhavabhuti's Malatimadhava. 
Scholars assign him to the time between the 
14th and the 17th centuries and his definite 
date is not yet known. He has produced, 
besides, a Sivastotra. He is the son of Ratna- 
dhara and Damayantika and is known as a 
Naiyayika also. He held the office of Dharm- 
adhikaranika under some king, From a 
quotation by himself in his commentary on 
Bhoja's Sarasvati Kanthabharana, we learn that 
he was proficient in music and Natya and 
produced a treatise thereon called the Sangita 
Sarvasva : 

cre^f g^ftgg^ f '*mT jf^T^' etc. 

Vasndeva's commentary on the drama 
Karp u ramanjar i of Rajasekhara (p. 5), 
Ruchipati's commentary on Murari's drama 
Anargnaraghava (p. 300, 302), and Raghava- 
bhatta's commentary on the Sakuntala of 
Kalidasa quote the Sangita Sarvasva. 



1 See my article The Non-musical works of some of 
our hading Music writers. Journal of the Music 
Academy, Madras, XX. pp, 152-4, 



16 



Kesava 

AH that we know of this writer is that he 
was a commentator on the Ratnakara and 
that he flourished before 1614 A.D., the time 
of the Sangita Sudha which is the sole source 
of our knowledge regarding this writer. See 
above under S. Ratnakara and the commen- 
taries upon it. 

Harindra 

Another writer known to us similarly from 
a mention in the Sangita Sudha is Harindra; of 
him also nothing more is known. Sec above 
under Haripala and below under Sangita Sudha, 

Sangita Chandrika of Madhava Bhatta 

{Earlier than 1614 A.D.) 

The Sangita Sudha now and then refers to 
a Bhatta Madhava and his music work, 
Sangita Chandrika : 

P. 152 Madras Music Academy edn. 

The Sangita Narayana quotes a Sangita 
Chandrika : on p. 25, the Murti of Madhya- 
madi and p, 44 Murti of Kedar. This Sangita 
Chandrika seems to be a different work. 

The Tanjore Library contains a manuscript 
of Madhava Bhatta's Sangita Chandrika, 
(T* V. No. 373, Tanjore Library). The author 
is described as Varanasi-vastavya— a citizen of 
Banaras. Its author is known from the following 
passage in the text and from the colophon : 

(R) coL ^TFTOtf^1% ^^ngft^wri 

fWTO I! 

Matanga is quoted in the text. The con- 
tents of the work are :~ 

(1) Sruti, Svara etc. (2) Raga, Gamaka and 
Aiapa (3) Kaku, Sthaya and Sarira (voice). 

This Sangita Chandrika of Madhava Bhatta 
may be taken as not later than 1614 A.D. 
if it is the work of that name quoted in the 
Sangita Sudha. 



Tanappacharya 

(1600 A. D.) 

In the Chaturdandi Prakasika of Venkata- 
makhi we have one Tanappacharya referred 
to as follows : 

2. In the Alapa Prakarana, we find— 

3. In the Thaya-Prakarana, we find him 
mentioned as the author's Parama Guru, i.e. 
Guru's Guru of Venkatamakhi 

From these we see that Venkatamakhi 
follows Tanappacharya, his Guru's Guru, and 
that perhaps he wrote some works, or at least 
codified or composed set methods of singing 
Ragas, Thayas etc. 

It is traditionally handed down that 
Tanappacharya is Venkatamakhfs Guru. The 
introduction to the Sangita Sampradaya 
Pradarsini of Subbarama Dikshitar gives him 
as the Guru of Venkatamakhi, the author of 
the Ch a tu rdan diprak asik a , and as a northerner, 
Auttara-desika, Some say that he is only a 
songster and that he is none else than the 
renowned Tansen of Akbar's court, who is 
believed to have been converted to Islam. 
There is nothing in the dates of Akbar, Tansen 
and Venkatamakhi to go against such an 
identification, but there is no actual evidence 
for such a supposition. 

The text of the Chaturdandi clearly mentions 
him as the author's Guru's Guru. And if 
none else than his father Govinda Dikshita 
is the Guru of Venkatamakhi, we do not know 
how Govinda Dikshita makes no mention of 
Tanappa in his S. Sudha. 

Another opinion, held by Mr. P. S. 
Sundaram Ayyar of Tanjore, is that Tanappa 
might have been none else than Venka- 
tamakhi' s own father and author of the 
Sangita Sudha, Govinda Dikshita (Vide p. 159, 
Journal of the Madras Music Academy Vol II. 



17 



p. 159). There docs not seem to be any proof 
for this identification. 

Scholars are aware of Bhava Bhatta and 
his works, This writer was a protege of Atmpa 
Simha, King of Bikaner> who ruled between 
1674 and 1709 AD. His Anapa Sangita Vifosa 
mentions that he had a grandfather named 
Tana Bhatta. Could Tanappa, grand teacher 
of Venkatamakhi, be identical with him ? 
Ranganatha of Banaras who wrote his com- 
mentary on the Vikramorvasiya in 1790 A<D. 
and shows acquaintance with music had a 
great-grand-father named Tana Bhatta. 

Sangita Sudha of Govinda Dikshita 

(1614 A. Z) ) 

Though the Sangita Sudha is known as a 
work of King Raghunatha, it was really 
Govinda Dikshita, the minister of Raghunatha 
and his father Achytrta, who wrote it. He 
attributed it to his patron and king. This is 
plain, as has been pointed out by Pandit 3. 
Subrahmanya Sastri of Tanjore, in an article 
on Venkatamakhi and his twelve notes in the 
Journal of the Madras Music Academy. 
(Vol. II, p. 22). The following evidence is 
found in the Chaturdandiprakasika and this 
has been quoted in the Preface to the Sangita 
Sampradayapradarsini also. In the Veen a 
Prakarana, Venkatamakhi says that he will 
reproduce certain verses from his father's 
work, known by the name Sangita 
Sudhanidhi: 

Ch. I s 153-5 p. p. 13-14, Madras Music 
Academy edn. 

The context is the description of the 
Raghunatha Mela Veena and after these verses, 
three Upajati verses are reproduced from the 
Sangita Sudha. From this reference we are to 
take that the Sangita Sudha of Govinda Dikshita 
was also known as the Sangita Sudhanidhi. But 
actually the reading may be Sudhayam pari- 
drisyate and there is no need to suppose an 
alternate name for the work, 



1 The reading here is not clear; the Ms. has 
^mfcfsr ^T#; it may be %VWT Mftf^a I 



In state affairs, public benefactions and con- 
tributions to culture, great is the name of 
Govinda Dikshita alias Ayyan. Those interested 
in his life may look up Mr. Venkateswara 
Ayyar's book on Govinda Dikshita. 

Thanks to the efforts of Subrahmanya Sastri 
and Sundaram Ayyar of Tanjore, this work was 
printed in the Journal of the Madras 
Music Academy; the present writer who was in 
charge of the work in the later stages issued 
it in book form with additions and corrections, 
detailed table of contents etc. 1 

The work opens with a historical prelude 
in 77 verses which forms valuable material for 
the historian of the Nayak Kings of Tanjore. 
The genealogy of King Raghunatha, the 
number and kinds of charities made by each 
Nayak king and other details are described. The 
literary productions associated with the King 
Raghunatha, Parijataharana-prabandha, Valmih i- 
charita-kavya, Aehyutendrabhyudaya (a histori- 
cal kavya about his own father), Gajendramok- 
sha, Nalacharita-kavya and R ukm in ik a I y ana- 
yak shagana are mentioned. Then Raghunatha's 
proficiency in music, his creation of new 
Ragas, Talas and a new Mela, are mentioned 
thus: 

^ftrriwf *mifr^3 faqf^Frrre- 

^Ttfa II 

P. 5, Madras Music Academy edn. 

We need not doubt the scholarly interests 
of Raghunatha. In the historical poem on him 
named Sahitya Ratnakara (published in the 
Madras University Journal and later as a 
separate Bulletin) by a son of this Govinda 
Dikshita, named Yajnanarayana Dikshita, the 
first Veena-performancc given by Raghunatha 
before the State V id vans and his father is 
described at length. (Canto VI, Sis. 4-29). 

Raghunatha invented Jayantasena and other 
Ragas and Ramananda and other Talas. He 
devised a Mela with his name, in which could 
be played all the Ragas. This is taken as the 

1. Music Academy Series I, 1940. 



18 



basis by Mr. Sun da ram Ayyar of Tanjore who 
says that the 72 Melakarta scheme found in the 
Chaturdandl Prakasika of his son is really the 
work of Govinda Dikshita. While it cannot be 
held that musical ideas were evolved by Venkata- 
makhi without his father's knowledge, what we 
actually know is that Venkatamakhi expressly 
takes credit in his work for inventing the 72 
Melakarta scheme. 

Then the work gives its extent and scope 
thus: It is in seven chapters : I. Svara, IT. Raga, 
III. Prakirnaka (here Vaggeyakara, Gandharva, 
Gayana etc., are defined ; Sarira, Gamaka, 
B rind a etc., are also dealt with), TV. Prabandha. 
V. Tala, VI. Vadya, VII. Nartana (Natya, Rasa, 
etc., are here comprehended). But in all the 
manuscripts of the work that are available to 
us, we do not have the text after the Prabandha- 
dhyaya, i, e,, the fourth chapter. The remain- 
ing portion containing the chapters on Tala 
and Nartana are yet to be found. 

The work is written in beautiful Sanskrit 
and is noteworthy for the polish and grace of 
its language. Many Sastrakaras like Kumarila, 
Udayana, Vedanta Sutrakara, Mahabharata, 
Vamana and Bhamaha are mentioned. Among 
writers on music, Durgu, Dattila, Sadasiva, 
Sardula, Tumburu, Narad a, N and in, Hanuman, 
Kohala, Matanga, Bharata, Samgadeva, Parsva- 
deva (many times; see pp. 274, 279 and 280, 
Music Academy edition), Somesvara (p. 834) 
Arjuna, Vidyaranya, BhattaMadhava, Umapati, 
Kesava, Kallinatha and Harindra are quoted, 
The noteworthy data given here with regard 
to different works and authors have already been 
noticed, during the course of this paper, as well 
as in the earlier paper on Early Sangita Lite- 
rature, The writer named Harindra is referred 
to in the following verse : 

P. 100, Madras Music Academy edn. 

We have suggested above that this Harindra, 
who is referred to as a recent writer (Adhunikaj 
like Sarngadeva, as a contrast to Matanga, 
Sadasiva etc., may be King Haripaladeva, 
author of Sangita Sudhakara. For a full list 
of the citations in the Sangita Sudha, see its 
Music Academy edition. 

The Chaturdandi Prakasika of Venkatamakhin 

(1620 A.D\) 

Venkatamakhin, referred to also as Venkata- 
dhvari and Venkatesvara Dikshita, is one of 



the sons of the above-mentioned Govinda 
Dikshita, author of Sangita Sudha. He was a 
distinguished Mimamsa scholar and has contri- 
buted to that Sastra a commentary on Kumarila 
viz., the Varttlkahharana. The famous poet and 
minister at the Madura Nayak court, Nilakantha 
Dikshita was a pupil of his. This Venkatamakhin 
wrote a treatise on music called the Chaturdandl 
Prakasika. Though produced in the Tanjore 
palace, no manuscript of it is found in the 
Sarasvati Mahal Library at Tanjore and for 
long no manuscript of it could be found at aih 
Venkatamakhin was remembered as the system- 
atiser of Carnatic music, and the author of the 
72 Melakarta scheme. 

Attention may be invited to an objective 
analysis of the position of Venkatamakhin and 
the 72 Melas scheme by the present writer in 
his paper on the subject in the Journal of the 
Music Academy, Madras (XI [ T 69—79). Sri T, L. 
Venkatai ama Iyer, through his Guru Sri Ambi 
Dikshitar of Etta yapu ram, descendant of the 
composer Muthuswami Dikshitar, secured a 
Tehigu paper copy of the manuscript and pre- 
pared a Devanagari copy from it, Later, on 
behalf of the Music Academy, Madras, Pandit 
Subrahmanya Sastri of Tanjore prepared it for 
press. Previously, Mr Bhatkhande had pub- 
lished portions of it, having copied those por- 
tions from the above-noted Telugu manuscript. 
Sometime later, the Music Academy, Madras, 
issued also a Tamil translation of the work, 
prepared by Sri Subrahmanya Sastri, ... 

Scholars who have gone through the work 
hold diverse views ; while there are "not wanting 
Vidvans who stand and swear by it, others 
question the validity or the usefulness of its 
scheme. A severe controversy over the subject 
of the Melakarta-scheme raged in the Madras 
Press (Vide Hindu Literary Supplements, 
Dec. 20th and 26th, 1932— Karnatic Music— 
The Importance of Standards). In his 
work, Venkatamakhin says that he devised the 
72 Melakarta scheme, that it is absolutely above 
reproach and that not even God Siva could 
improve upon it: 

?T^T II iv. 74, 90, 
P. 42, 43, Madras Music Academy edn. 91, 92. 



19 



The work as available to us now does; not 
contain the end of the penultimate chapter and 
the whole of the last chapter. Chapter I gives 
the following as the contents of the work : 

?Tcft xmsfWlK-tN^^ \t 

P. U Madras Music Academy edn. 

The end of the ilth chapter, Prabandhas, 
and the 12th chapter, Talas, are lost. Some of 
the authors quoted in the work are Bharata, 
Sarngadeva, Narada, Matanga, Somes vara, 
Gopala Nayaka, Ramamatya and Tanappa. 
Of these the last but one, the author of the 
Svarame/a Kalanidhi, is very strongly criticised. 
The following are a few samples of the language 
of the onslaught on Ramamatya : 

IV. 173, P. 52 f Madras Music 
Academy edn. 

IV. 197, P- 54- Ibid. 

wr*ranr \\ 1. 56. wmtsft ™ it 

h n6, Pp. 5, 10, Ibid. 

He says that Ramamatya could not under- 
stand what even a shepherd could understand. 
Such criticism is unwarranted, especially when 
we allow for the passage of time and rise of 
new ideas in the theoretical analysis and singing 
practice. The same sane view has, strangely, 
to be adopted in regard to the Chaturdandi 
Prakasika itself. For, the Mela-scheme as it 
came to prevail later, and is still obtaining, is 
not the one that accords with that of Venkata- 
makhin but agrees with that found in a work 
called Sangraha Chudamani which we shall be 
noticing below: 

Of Gopala Nayaka mentioned by Venkata- 
makhin and of Tanappacharya, the Parama- 
guru of Venkatamakhin, we have spoken above. 



Now to the title of the worfc which 
is a rare kind of name in Sanskrit Sangita 
literature. The name means an exposition of 
Chaturdandi and the work Chaturdandi is ex- 
plained by a passage in Tutoja's Sangita Saramrita 
which borrows largely from the Chaturdandi 
Prakasika. The reference says that Chaturdandi 
is four forms of singing, viz., Gita, Prabandha v 
Thaya and Alapa. The line in the Saramrita is; 
"ntof ^t^^j^ 'H^ H^^^ " and these are the 
main subjects treated of by Venkatamakhin- 
The famous Gopala Nayaka must have beei* 
very famous for the singing of Chaturdandi 
or * must have codified these four forms 
for a certain number of Ragas; for m the 
IXth Chapter, Sh 5, Venkatamakhin says : 

P. 75, Madras Music 
Academy edn. 

The Chaturdandi Prakasika was not a 
production of Raghunatha's reign which 
began in A.D, 1614. It was written in the 
reign of Raghunatha's successor, Vijaya 
Raghava Nayaka who prompted the writing of 
it. The colophon in the manuscript of the 
Chaturdandi Prakasika bears out this fact: 

Vijaya Raghava Nayaka ruled up to about 
A. D + 1672. The Sangita Saramrita of King 
Tulaja, a Mahrata ruler of Tan jo re, utilises a 
large portion from the Veena-prakarana of the 
Chaturdandi Prakasika, and makes repeated 
reference to it in his Raga ehapter. Besides 
the Chaturdandi Prakasika, Venkatamakhin is 
said to be the author of the supplement 
(anuhandhd) setting forth the names of the 72 
Melas and their derivatives with short descrip- 
tions; but on this, attention may be invited to 
my paper, above referred to. Venkatamakhin 
has composed Lakshana-gitas also for a large 
number of Ragas which are printed in the 
Sangita Sampradaya Pradamnu 

The Sangita Darpana of Damodara 

(1625 A. D.) 

This work was printed but the old edition 
gives us only two chapters. Complete manus- 
cripts of this work are available in many 
libraries, e.g. Madras Government Oriental 
Library, Des. Cat. XXIL 13016, Tanjore, 



20 



New Cat. No. 10716-23, Bhandarkar Oriental 
Institute Cat. Vol. XII Nos. 320-22, Using four 
of the manuscripts there, the Sarasvati Mahal 
Library has issued more recently (1952) a 
very unsatisfactory edition of this work. The 
work is in six chapters, the last being devoted 
to dance. The other five deal respectively 
with Svara, Raga, Prakirnaka, Prabandha and 
Vadya. From the colophon we see that 
Damodara, its author, had the title 'Chatura* 
like Kallinatha and that lie was the son of 
Lakshmidhara Bhatta: MW3.^r^T?pr- 

This work is based on Somanatha's 
Ragavibodha and quotes in the same places the 
same authors and works quoted by SomanaUia. 
Damodara wrote shortly after Somanatha. 

The Sangita Darpana of Baribhatta 

The Bikaner Catalogue, (p. 527, Manuscript 
No. 1123), Oppert/s Catalogue and Burnett's 
Tanjore Catalogue describe a work called 
Sangita Saraddhara by one Hari Bhatta. The 
work begins thus i 

This work is available in the Madras 
Manuscripts Library also, The text of this 
work is virtually the same as that of Damodara's 
5. Darpana. Perhaps Damodara had another 
name Han Bhatta, or perhaps 'Hari Bhatta' is a 
mistake of 'Hari Bhakta' or perhaps an author 
named Han Bhatta made his own version of 
Damodara's work. The last seems to be likely. 
The Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal edition of 
Sangitadarpana prints this text, The Catalogue 
of Manuscripts of N. W. Provinces (612) 
describes the work as Hari BhatLa s s Sangita 
Darpana. The catalogue describes it as a work 
on prosody because it has mistaken the mention 
of Dhruvas m the work as indicating a work 
on metres. The Sangita Darpana of Damodara 
does not contain a separate section on Dhruvas 
but Han Bhatta's version, called in some 
manuscripts Sangita Saroddham, perhaps 
contains a treatment of Dhruvas. 1 

The Tanjore manuscript of Hari Bhatta's 
Sangita Darpana contains seven chapters the 
last dealing with dance. The Madras manus- 
cript has a Tclugu Tika appended to it. 



The Sangita Kalanidhi of Hari Bhatta 

From Aufr cent's Catalogue Catalogorum we 
learn that Hari Bhatta produced a work called 
Sangita Kalanidhi. The catalogue of manus- 
cripts of the N. W. Provinces (111.80) mentions 
this Sangita Kalanidhi. 

The Sangita Saroddhara of Kikaraja 

Related to the above-noticed Sangita Sarod- 
dhara of Hari Bhatta but obviously to be distin- 
guished from it, is a work of the same name 
attributed to a writer named Kikaraja, son of 
Sajjana. Aufrecht notes his work as noticed in 
Peterson's catalogue {Search for Manuscripts, 
Bombay) IV. 32 and Extr. 42. 

I came across a manuscript of this work in 
the Manuscripts Library of the Bhandarkar 
Oriental Institute, Poona (No. 838 of 1886-92). 
It has since been described in their Descriptive 
Catalogue subsequently issued, XII. 332. The 
man a script is in 16 big paper sheets. The 
author says he was bom in Kapola-anvaya 
as the son of one Sajjana: 

^1^t#t ^wTTterd fefta% 1 1 

This is almost identical with the verse in 
Hari Bhatta's text. 
Colophon : 

i 

'Saradanandana 1 is perhaps Kikaraja' s title. 
The following authorities are given by him: 
Bharata, Kasyapa, Dattila, Yashtika, Arjuna, 
Vayu f Tumburu, Narada, Matanga, Visakhila, 
Kambalasvatara, Kohala, Rahala, Ravana 
and others. Sarngadeva's list is repeated. 

The work deals with music and dance and 
the contents are as follows: (i) Svara, (ii) Raga, 
(in) Prakirna (Alapti, Gamaka, Gayaka-gunas, 
Vrinda etc), (iv) Git a or Prabandha (a big 
chapter), (v) Vadya, (vi) Tala and (vii) Nritya. 

Abhilasha's Sangita Chandra and the Sangita 
Bhaskara of King Jagajjyotirmalla and 
Vangamani 
(1617-33 A.D.) 
Jagajjyotirmalla was a King of Nepal who 
ruled between 1617 and 1633 A.D. He is 



21 



already known to Sanskrit scholars as the 
author of a commentary on Padmasri's 
Nagarasarvas v a t a work on Karoa-sastra. He 
did some valuable work in music by bringing 
to his court music works and writers and by 
himself writing on the subject. From the 
catalogue of manuscripts in the Nepal Palace 
Library by Hara Prasad Sastri (p. 260), we 
learn that there was one Abhilasha in South 
India who composed a work on music called 
Sangita Chandra and that, with great efforts, 
King Jagajjyotirmalla brought that Sangita 
Chandra to Nepal, even as Garuda brought 
amrita. At the end of the manuscript of the 
said Sangita Chandra we read 

*rf% q^fr wm\ r^: h^t^tHti; i 

wA^ft ^crd^i^Um: i 

The work, says Jagajjyotirmalla, was the 
best among the numerous treatises on music. 
That one Abhilasha wrote it is clear from the 
introductory verse : 

The work seems to be very valuable and it 
treats very elaborately of dance and music, 
beginning with the construction of the theatre 
etc. 

It is written in prose and verse. 

Sangita Bhaskara: (Its commentary) 

After bringing this valuable work to his 
court from the South, King Jagajjyotirmalla 
called to his assistance a scholar named 
Vangamani and had a commentary on it 
called Sangita Bhaskara written : 

^rfl^WT^wr^ g^?F 5^r^ snfcr ^mfanr \ i 

The last verse says that Vangamani himself 
wrote it at the king's order and that Vangamani 
was a native of Mithila: 



That it is a commentary on Abhilasha's 
Sangita Chandra is known from the colophon 
which runs thus: 

The work is mostly in prose, It is 
available in the Nepal Palace Library and is 
described on p. 262 of the Nepal Darbar 
Library catalogue. 

Sangita Sara Sangraha 

Still unsatisfied, King Jagajjyotirmalla 
himself wrote a treatise called Sangita Sara 
Sangraha, dealing with music, dance and 
drama, in prose and verse. The work is 
available, like those described above, in the 
Nepal Palace Library and is described on 
p, 263 of the catalogue of that library. 

King Jagajjyotirmalla wrote also an operatic 
drama called Hara-Gauri Vivaha in the 
Nepalese dialect. He thus gave considerable 
fillip to dance and music during his reign in 
Nepal. 

Ahobala-s Sangita Parijata 

(17th century) 
The Sangita Parijata of Ahobala Pandita 
has been published from Bengal. As pointed 
out in the introduction to that edition of it, 
the text available does not seem to be complete 
While enumerating the contents, Ahobala 
mentions Kambala Lakshana, Vaggeyakara 
Lakshana, etc., but these are not found in the 
text. Further the work which now closes with 
Ragas must have had more chapters. Each 
chapter , according to Ahobala's statement in 
the beginning, is called * Kan da 5 to fit in with 
the metaphor in the name Parijata Mss, of 
the Parijata are available in many libraries 
and a critical edition of this important text is 
long overdue, 

Ahobala refers to many ancient writers on 
music and bases his text on Hanuman's work. 
The name Ahobala appears to be Southern. 
This work was translated into the Persian in 
1724 A.D. and may, therefore ? be placed 
in the 17th century. 

The Sangita Makaranda and the Sangita (Lasya) 
Pushpanjali of Veda 

(Early 17th century) 

As different from the Narada Sangita 
Makaranda available now in print, we find in 
the Tanjore Library Catalogue and the Bikaner 



22 



Library Catalogue a work called Sangita 
Makaranda by one Veda. (3 copies, Tanjore, 
Bunnell Cat. 60 p. a; New Cat. 10724-6; Bik. 
Cat,, p. 520. no. iii,) See also S.R. Bhandarkar's 
Catalogue of Manuscripts of Rajputana and 
Central India (1904-5 to 1905-6), p. 54. 

I have gone through the work in its 
manuscript in the Tanjore Library. The three 
manuscripts available contain only the dance 
chapter : 

The Bik. Ms. also contains only the Nritya- 
dhyaya and has this same colophon. We have 
either only this much available or Veda's work 
is only on Natya. We may, however, hope that 
the work has more chapters on music. 

Similar is Veda's other work Sangita 
{Lasya) Pushpanjatl which is available in the 
Tanjore and Bikaner Libraries. I read the 
Tanjore manuscript and found that it dealt with 
only the Purvaranga which precedes Nritya. 
(Tanjore New Cat. Vol. 16, no, 10674, 10714; 
Bik. Cat., pp. 521-522, Ms. 1113.) 

While Sangita Makaranda treats of Rasa 
drishtis, Gatis, Charis, Hastas, various dances 
and lastly Rasas, the other work, as said 
above, speaks only of the dance and music of 
the propitiatory Purvaranga. The Makaranda 
quotes Bharata, Sangita Ratnakara, Kohala and 

Maloji 
Sahaji 

(2 wives) 
Jijibai 



Sambhu Sivaji the Great 

or 
Sambaji 
(pupil of Veda in music) 

Thus Sahaji, patron of Veda, the author 
of Sangita Makaranda, is the father of the 
great Sivaji to whose brother Sambhu, Veda 
was teaching music. The work thus belongs to 
the early part of the 17th century. 

The Makaranda mentions in the end two 
musicians, one Gopala and his son. Ambapuri 
is said to be the place of Veda. 



Darpana and gives some songs composed on 
Shahu, the author's patron. The work gives 
his patron's Vamsavali in the end: 

Saurashtra country— Suryavamsa 

i 

Khelorji 

i 

Parasoji 

] 

Babaji 

Malta or) 

[ = Uma 
Mallari J 

I 

2 sons 



Sahaji (Makaranda Sarabhaji 
| bhupa) 



Sambhu Sivaji the Great 

We can compare with the above Vamsavali 
another supplied by Tulajendra's Sangita 
Saramrita. 

(Mallari of Veda) 



and Tukkabai 
Ekoji 

(1st Tanjore _Mahrat ha King) 

Sahaji Serfoji Tulaja 

(author of Sangita 
Saramrita 1729-35 A.D.) 

The manuscript of the Pushpanjali is full 
of blunders and is crumbling. From it we see 
that Veda wrote it after seeing Chatura 
Darnodara's Sangita Darpana. This Damodara 
had a son named Ananta who seems to have 
taught music to Veda; 

^T^TS^T ^zrf^qr^fe^ : -\ h + 



23 



But according to the information in S. R. 
Bhandarkar's Catalogue of Manuscripts in 
Rajaputana and Central India, Veda is the 
son of Ananta, the son of Damodara. If it is 
correct, Veda is the grandson of the author 
of the Sangita Darpana. 

Sangita Kalpataru 

Subodhini^Commentary on it by Raya Ganesa. 

The author of Sangita Kalpataru, which 
seems to have been very popular, is not known. 
Ranganatha Dikshita, in his commentary on 
the Vikramofvasiya, quotes it once and 
Rtxchipati quotes it five times in his commentary 
on the Anargha Raghava. From the quotations 
we can gather that the work resembled the 
Natya Sastra of Bharata and dealt with music, 
dance and drama. 

The work is said to be available in Bengal, 
there being a notice of it in the M ann scripts 
Catalogue of Raendralal Mitra. Since Ranga- 
natha Dikshita wrote his commentary on the 
Vikramorvasiya in Samvat 1712 or A. D- 1655, 
Sangita KaJpataru, we may take, was earlier 
than that date. If the Sangita Kalpa Vriksha 
mentioned in the Sangita sir o man i is identical 
with Sangita Kalpataru, it should be earlier 
than A.D. 1428. 

Sangita KaJpataru has a commentary on it 
called Subodhini by one Raya Ganesa Deva, 
written under the patronage of a king named 
Khadgabahu, son of Vira Simha. A manuscript 
of this commentary 'Kafpataru-tika Subodhini" 
is described on p. 512, under No. 1094, in the 
Btkaner Library Catalogue. 

Lochana Kavi's Raga Tarangini and Raga 
Sangita Sangraha (1700 A.D.) 

Lochana Kavi's Raga Tarangini is a work 
on North Indian music and it is printed. The 
author is a native of M it hi la which he calls his 
Sva-desa. This short work deals with Ragas 
and is very small. 



In the work Tumburu is quoted on the times 
appropriate for singing each Raga: ^t*tt*TT 

*TFH>Mn ^f^n£% I This is the only source of 
information for us to know that Tumburu' s 
work was called Tumburu Nataka. 

The printed edition of this work is not 
complete. The author says that he will give 
the Gitas written by Vidyapati in the Maithili 
vernacular but these songs are omitted in the 
edition. From his quotation of VidyapatPs 
songs, we see that Lochana Kavi is later than 
Vidyapati who nourished in the fourteenth 
century. A verse at the end of the work how- 
ever gives the date as ^^g^fq^RTT^, 
i.e., Saka 1082 or A.D. 1160, but according to 
some, this Saka is not the well-known Saliva- 
hana Saka but some local, era according to the 
calculation of which there will be no contradic- 
tion, the date of Lochana coming to somewhere 
near the 17th century. Hridayanarayana seems 
to have utilised the Ragatarangini of Lochana 
Kavi in writing his work. Hridayanarayana 
is assigned to A.D. 1667. 

Raga Sangita Sangraha is another work 
written by Lochana Kavi and this we know 
from a reference to this work by himself in his 
Ragatarangini: "rfffaf ^R^frj ^IW^T- 

This work therefore must be bigger than the 
Ragatarangini. I have not come across any 
notice of this work in any of the mansucripts 
catalogues. 

According to the late Kshiti Mohan Sen of 
Santimketan, the date 1160 A.D. is correct and 
the songs of Vidyapati in Lochana's Ragata- 
rangini are an interpolation. 1 

(To be Continued in the next Bulletin) 

1 See Visvabharali Quarterly, Nov. Jan. 1943-44, pp 4 249- 
255, Swami Prajnanaoda in his recent writings takes 
Lochana as a writer of the 16th T Cent. A, D ( 



24 



LATER SANGITA LITERATURE 



By 

Dr. V. Ragtiavan 



(This is the second and the concluding part of the revised version of 
Dr. Ragha van's paper originally published in the Journal of the 
Madras Musk Academy, Volume IF, 1932) 



The Raga Tatlva Vibodha of Srlnlvasa Pandit a 
Latter half of the 17th Century 

This work is also available in print, and it 
has been recently re-edited in the Gaekwad's 
Oriental Series, Baroda (1956). A manuscript 
of it is described in the Bikaner Library 
Catalogue, This small work contains in the 
beginning an interesting discussion on the 
ethics of music. The work is indebted to 
Ahobala's Parijata which belongs to the 17th 
century and is often quoted by Bhava Bhatta 
in his works, Bhava Bhatta flourished in the 
end of the 17th century and in the beginning 
of the eighteenth. Therefore, the time of 
Srinivasa's Raga Tattva Vibodha is the latter 
half of the 17th century. 

King Hridayanar ay ana's works : 1667 AJX 

The two works of this writer, Hridaya- 
prakasa and Hridayakautuka are printed. In 
the introductory verses is to be had some in- 
formation about Hridayanaryana. He was a 
ruler at Garrh or Gatadurga, i.e., Jubbalpore. 
He ruled about 1667 A.D. He is indebted to 
the Raga Tarangini of Lochanakavi 1 and is 
quoted by Bhava Bhatta who flourished at the 
end of the 17th century. Both the works are 
very short and deal with Ragas only. 



l Scc Vtsvabharati Quarter I y\ November- January, 
1943-4, pp< 249-255, Swami Prajnanananda in his recent 
writings takes Lochana as a writer of the 16th centurv 
A.D. 



Raga Manjari, Raga Kutuhala and Raga 
Kautuka 

These three works are known to us from 
quotations of the three in the Works of Bhava 
Bhatta, whom we shall notice presently. Nothing 
more of these three works is known. Regarding 
the last, Raga Kautuka, mention may be made 
of a work called Sangita Kautuka described in 
the Asiatic Society Catalogue (XVI. 69). 

King Anupa, Bhava Bhatta and their works 

(End of the 17th and the beginning of the 
18th centuries) 

There are available to us in print three music 
works called the Anupa Sangita Vilasa, Anupa 
Sangita Ratnakara and Anupa Sangita Ankusa 
by Bhava Bhatta. The works bear the mark 
of the name of King Anupa Simha, the patron 
of Bhava Bhatta, Anupa Simha was a King of 
Bikaner, who ruled from 1674 to 1709 A.D. 
He had in his court Bhava Bhatta who was 
very proficient and had the titles "Anushtup 
Chakravarti (master of the Anushtubh metre) 
and Sangita Raya", This Bhava Bhatta was 
the son of an equally distinguished father named 
Sangita Raya Janardana Bhatta who was the 
court-musician of the Mughul Emperor Shah- 
jeham The colophon to the Anupa Sangita 
Vilasa provides us with the above information. 

King Anupa Simha ordered a commentary 
on Gita Govinda to be written (Cat, of Manu- 
scripts, Jammu and Kashmir, by Stein, p. 67, 



1 



manuscript No. 386). He similarly ordered 
Bhava Bhatta to write many music works, three 
of which are the ones mentioned above, 
available to us in print. Sangita Anupa Ankusa 
says in the beginning : 

> TV C\ 

Bhava Bhatta says that it took him three 
and a half years to write these works. A 
manuscript of the S. Anupankusa preserved in 
the library of the Maharaja of Jammu and 
Kashmiris dated 1892 A.D., according to the 
notice of Stein, This work is in two chapters, 
on Svara and Raga, the Raga Chapter being 
called Alapana Manjari, 

*rf$?fi ivzTm; *ptfw: i 

Similarly, the Raga Chapter of the other 
work, Anupa Sangita Ratnakara, is also called 
Alapa Manjari in the opening verses* 

Anupa Sangita Ratnakara is also in two 
chapters dealing with Svara and Raga, It 
reproduces largely from Samgadeva and quotes 
often the following works : Sangita Parijata, 
Ragamanjari, Ragamala, Sangita Darpana, 
Sadragachandrodaya, Nrityanirnaya, Hridaya- 
prakasa, Ragatattvavibodha, Raga Kutuhala 
and Samkirna Ragadhyaya. The last name is 
most likely a reference to trie text called 
Sankirnaraga Lakshana, mss. of which are 
available in the Bikaner (p. 709), the Calcutta 
Asiatic Society (XIV. 70) and the Poona 
Bhandarkar Institute Libraries (XIL 319). From 
a verse in the beginning we see that Bhava 
Bhatta wrote and attributed the work to his 
patron Anupa Simha: 

The name itself shows that the work is only 
a recast of Sarngadeva's Ratnakara. 



Anupa Sangita Vilasa also bases itself on 
and is more or less a compilation from the 
works mentioned above as quoted in the Anupa 
Sangita Ratnakara. There is a rare instance 
relating to the Raga Ad ana, where he says 
that the statements regarding this Raga are his 
own— %4 *?gf^: I Other authorities quoted are: 
Matanga on Raganga, Sringara Hara or Sangita 
Sringara Hara on Tana etc., Sakalakala, i,e. 9 
Somanatha, Sangita Kalpadruma, Kallinatha's 
Kalanidhi, Raga Kautuka and Sangitopanishad. 

Anupa Sangita Vilasa is in 3 chapters, Sriui, 
Svara and Raga. The work has a description 
of King Anupa Simha, the. author and his 
court musician, viz. Bhava Bhatta, and a 
panegyric on the king in the beginning. Four 
verses describe Bhava Bhatta as a scholar not 
only in music and Bharata but also in Alankara 
and Tarka Sastras, as a poet and as a scholar 
in Mahabharata. In verses 3 9-44 ? Bhava Bhatta 
says that he belongs to the city called Dhavala 
in Abhiradesa, that his grandfather and father 
were Tana Bhatta and Janardana Bhatta res- 
pectively, that they belonged to Krishnatra 
gotra, that one Ghanasyama was the scholar 
who conferred upon Bhava Bhatta the 
title of 'Anushtup-Chakravartin' and that 
Shahjehan, his father's patron, gave him the 
title of 'Sangita Raya\ Bhava Bhatta migrated 
from Shahjehan's court to that of Anupa 
Simha where he produced his works. 

Other imprinted works of Bhava Bhatta 

Besides the three works dealt with above, 
Bhava Bhatta wrote three more, which we 
know of from the Bikaner Catalogue, One 
of them is Sangita Vinoda (p. 527, Bik. Cat* 
No. 1 125)* The work deals with music and 
dance. The last colophon, however, attributes 
the work to his patron Anupa Simha: 

Bhava Bhatta wrote another work devoted 
solely to the flute called Muraliprakasa, A 
manuscript of it is described on p. 513, under 
No. 1095 in the Bikaner Catalogue and the 
colophon says : 

The sixth work of Bhava Bhatta has a lengthy 
name ^3>f^^r#^ sfrKet^ a treatise on 



2 



Dhrupad singing (Bik. Cat., p. 514, No. 1097). 
This work quotes Somanatha's Ragavibodha. 
The colophon runs thus: 

Bhava Bhatta must have written after 1667 
A.D., the time of Hridayanarayana whom he 
quotes. 

The section on Music in Basava 's Siva Tattva 
Ratnakara (1698-1715 A.D.) 

Basava Raja or Basappa was a King of the 
Kannada Keladi dynasty of Vira Saiva faith, 
which ruled in the Kannada country for about 
250 years, Basappa ruled from 1698 to 1715A.D. 
Following Somesvara's Abhilashitartha-chinta- 
mani, he wrote an encyclopaedia of knowledge 
called the Siva Tattva Ratnakara, Like the 
Abhilashitartha-chintamani, the Siva Tattva 
Ratnakara contains a sub-section on music in 
the arts-section. In Kallola VI, three chapters, 
VII to IX (6-13), deal with music, Svara, Raga, 
Tala and Vadya; Chap, VII deals with Nada, 
Svara, Grama, Murchhana. Alankara and 
Gamaka, Chap, VIII, with Jatis and Ragas and 
closes with Gayaka-lakshana; Chap, IX covers 
Tala and Vadya. 

In the end of the section, Basava refers to 
some authorities on music, viz, Dattila, Nandi, 
Bhringi, Kohala, Bharata, Adi B ha rata, Sarnga- 
deva and Utpala, The last perhaps is Utpaladeva 
the grand preceptor of Acharya Abhinavagupta. 
(See my previous paper on Early Sangita 
Literature.) 

Chatura Sabha VHasa 

Similar compendia were compiled by other 
writers. There is said to be a work dealing 
with all the 64 arts called Chatusshashti Kala 
attributed to Bhoja but it has not yet come to 
light. A similar work dealing with ail the arts 
nourishing in a king's court, called Chatura 
Sabha Vilasa, seems to exist. It is quoted by 
one Ramananda Narayana Sivayogi Raja in his 
music work called Natya Sarvasva Dipika, 
(p. 37, manuscript in the Bhandarkar Oriental 
Research Institute,) This thesaurus also treats 
of music. 

Similarly, we hear of a thesaurus by a 
Venkatagiri king of the last century, which too 
is said to contain a large section on music. 



King Tulaja's Sangita Saramrita 

The art traditions of the Tanjore Telugu 
kings were kept up for a time by the succeeding 
Mahratta rulers. The rule of the three sons 
of Ekoji (the first Mahratta ruler), viz. y Sahaji, 
Serfoji and Tukkoji alias Tulaja showered the 
greatest benefactions on scholars. Tulaja or 
Tukkoji who reigned between 1729-35 A.D., 
wrote a music work called the Sangita Saramrita 
of which, as I have shown elsewhere, thirteen 
manuscripts are available in the Tanjore 
Saras vati Mahal Library. The work opens 
with an account of the Mahratta rulers of 
Tanjore, 

Ekoji 

(First .Ta njore Mahratta King) 

Sahaji Serfoji Tulaja 

(1684-1710 A.D.) (171I : 28 A,D.) (1729-35 A.D.} 

(See the present writer's introduction to the 
Madras Music Academy edition of the Sangita 
Saramrita,) The work says at the outset, like all 
other works beginning with the Svaramelakala- 
nidhi, that it is written by the author to bridge 
the gulf between Lakshya and Lakshaira, 
practice and theory. 

The following works and writers are men- 
tioned. Sarngadeva (often), Bharata,Dhananjaya* 
Saubhagyalakshmikalpa, Suta Samhita and the 
commentary on it by Vidyaranya; Matanga, 
Nandin, Narada, Visvavasu, Tumburu (these 
quotations are reproduced from Kahinatha), 
Venya, KohalarBayakara (Ramamatya), Puran- 
daradasa, Chaturdandiprakasika of Venkata- 
makhin, Vitthala and Somesvara. Large por- 
tions are borrowed from Venkatamakhin's 
Chaturdandiprakasika, and the quotation on the 
Melas is particularly valuable as shown by the 
present writer (Journal of the Music Academy^ 
Vol. XII, pp. 69-79). A great music master 
and composer named Vyasapacharya is quoted 
by Tulaja (pp. 158-9, Music Academy edition). 
An epitome of the Saramrita was published 
from Bombay but a complete edition of it 
has been brought out by the Madras Music 
Academy (1942). The present writer has in this- 
edition a long introduction which deals with 
the author and his other writings, an analysis 
in English of the whole text and the Ragas 
described therein and other allied matters. For 
long the Saramrita was taken as not comprising „ 
a dance-chapter. The present writer found its 
valuable dance-chapter, and presented it in the 
introduction to the Music Academy edition of 
the Saramrita. 



3 



Sangita Sastra Sankshepa or Sangraha 
C hudamant of Govinda 

In the Adyar Library there had been a 
manuscript of the above name lying unnoticed. 
It was the late Sri K. V. Ramachandran who 
found out its value and made a copy of it. 
Subsequently the work found circulation among 
the scholars assembling under auspices of the 
Music Academy and its Conferences and the 
work then took its due place of prominence in 
the history of Carnatic music theory. 

The original manuscript Is in Telugu script 
and the work is named therein as 'Sangita 
Sastra Sankshepa' of Govinda, which is in 
accordance with the following verse in the text 
in the opening chapter. 

(P. 5, Adyar edn) 

Soon we come across two colophons men- 
tioning two chapters of the work and informing 
us that the work is a part of the Skanda- 
purana, that God Shanmukha wrote it and that 
it is called Sangraha Cudamani: 

^qrftswpr : \ i 

After a second colophon of a similar nature, 
no division into chapters is seen. The first 
chapter gives a number of Mangala Slokas, 
mentions ancient writers like Bharata and 
briefly speaks without coherence or correctness 
about odd subjects of Natya. The whole work 
is written in absurd Sanskrit. 

There is very little evidence to decide the 
<late of the work. However, 1 have been able 
to land on this bit which mentions the Achyuta- 
rayamela Veen a which, if it is a reference to 
Achyuta Nayaka, gives us the upper limit of the 
work's date as 1577-1614 A.D., the date of 
King Achyuta Nayaka of Tanjore: 

^> ft irrft (frPr) ^tt: i 

Govinda's work represents the system now 
obtaining and has, therefore, superseded the 
Chaturdandjprakasika. The J ate K. V. Rama- 
chandran, who discovered the manuscript and 



its utility, considered that the work was still 
later and belonged, in all probability, to the 
time of Mr. Tachur Srirangachariar who supplied 
the names of the Ragas to Mr. Chinnaswamy 
Mudaliar. 

From the corrupt manuscript a press copy 
was prepared by the late Subrahmanya Sastri of 
Tanjore, who effected many corrections in the 
text, and the present writer undertook its publi- 
cation which, in the middle of the printing, was 
taken over by the Adyar Library. 

As against the system of Venkatamakhi and 
his nomenclature Kanakambari, etc, the 
Sangraha Chudamani calls its Mela-kartas 
Kanakangi, etc, makes all the Mela ragas 
mechanically sdmpuma in both ascent and 
descent and makes the older Mela-karta Ragas 
like Kanakambari, which were not so, Janyas 
under the new ones. Manuscript copies of the 
list of these new Melas Kanakangi, etc. , are 
found in the homes of musicians and libraries, 

Sangita Sangraha Chintarnam of Appalacharya 

The Adyar Library gives us one more manu- 
script in which we find another irregular work 
called the Sangita Sangraha Chintamani by 
one Appalacharya. The manuscript contains 
only the Tala chapter and part of the 
Nartana chapter of the work. The author is 
known from this verse at the beginning of the 
Nartanadhyaya. 

(Then in Tamil: enradu Srimushnam Appala 
Nayinar Kumarar Appala Naiyinarale Sangraha- 
ch in tarn ant pannappattadti.) 

The work is in the same manner all through, 
in Sanskrit verses followed by a Tamil gloss. 
The author is Appalacharya, son of Appala- 
charya, of the village of Srimushnam near 
Chidambaram. 

At the end of the Nartanadhyaya we are 
informed that one Narayana Vadhyar of 
Madura made this copy from the original 
manuscript of Raghunatha Nattuvanar (dance- 
master) for the sake of another Nattuvanar 
named Sankaramurti. 

The work may be assigned to the 19th 
century. 



Meladhikaralakshana 

This h an anonymous music work found 
in the Tanjcre Library (New cat. No$. 10846-7), 
with which the music world is familiar through 
a critical review of its contents in Vol I, No. I 
of the Journal of the Madras Music Academy by 
Sri T.L.Venkatarama Iyer, According to Sri T.L. 
Venkatarama Iyer, the work is t; a compara- 
tively recent production not earlier than the 
18th century 1 '. The author, who is not known, 
takes up and enlarges Venkatamakhin's system. 
It gives 24 sr utis and the chief feature of this 
work is said to He in this respect. The work 
is written in poor Sanskrit, 

Having dealt with South Indian works on 
Carnatic music, produced upto recent limes, we 
shall now go to the works produced in other 
parts of India, which are more specifically 
devoted to Hindustani music. 

Sangita Daniodara of Subhaiikara 

For a long time, only some meagre reference 
was available to this work and of its two manu- 
scripts available in the Bibhotheque Nationafe, 
Paris, and India Office, London (No. 1124), A 
manuscript of it was also described by 
R. L. Mitra in his Notices, Vol T, p. 2i9. 

Later a manuscript of it came to be known 
in the Public Library, Nabadwip, and another 
in the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, transcripts 
from both of which have been secured by the 
present writer. Recently another manuscript 
of it has been reported to have come into the 
collection in the Government Sanskrit College, 
Calcutta, and an edition based on this single 
ms. has been brought out by that college. 

In Vol, XXTI of the Journal of the Music 
Academy, Madras, A. Daniel ou gave an account 
of this work (pp. 129-131). The following is 
based on the present writer's personal examina- 
tion of the transcripts of two of the manuscripts 
mentioned above. 

The India Office manuscript was copied in 
A.D, 1722 and the Asiatic Society manuscript 
in A.D, 1&73. The former date gives us the 
lower limit to the date of the composition of 
this work. The author Subhankara says in the 
concluding verses of his work that he was the son 
of Sridhara and Subhadra. In the beginning 



he enumerates the following music and dance 
works : Natyalocana, Sangita Kalpavriksha, 
Dasarupaka, Natyadarpana, Sangita-natoragi 
(or S. Natabhujangi), Sangitamuktavali, and 
Narada's work (Pancamasarasamhita ?). In the 
course of the work, he quotes Sangitaratnakara, 
Bharatasamhita (?), Tumburunataka, Matanga 
and Nandin. It is clear that from this work, 
some material is drawn by Lochana Pandita 
author of the Ragatarangini which we assigned 
above C. 1700 A.D. The work is in five 
chapters and covers music, dance, drama and 
Rasas and related topics. 

Subhankara J s Hastanmkf avail 

At four places in the body of the work and 
at the end of the work again, Subhankara 
mentions his other work solely devoted to 
dance, Hastamuktavali. After some brief notes 
on this work and attempts to print it, an edition 
was prepared by Sri Manes war Neog of 
Gauhati University for the Journal of the 
Madras Music Academy where it has been 
appearing from its XXIVth volume onwards. 
Dr. Neog has pointed out 1 in his introduction 
to the above edition that Sukladhvaja (died 
C, 15 80) 3 brother and minister of Naranarayana 
of Cooch Behar, has quoted from the Sangita 
Damodara in his Saravati-commentary on the* 
Gita-Govinda. The Hastamuktavali, as its name 
signifies, deals elaborately with Hastabhinaya 
and besides the further enrichment of the hastas 
themselves, the work devotes special attention 
to the prayoga of the hastas in their several 
meanings. 

In the Nepal Darbar Library there is a 
commentary on this work, Rastamuktavah', 
written by one Ghanasyama in A.D. 1675. 

The present writer has collated the above 
mentioned edition with a London manuscript 
of the text and with these collations, the edition 
will shortly be issued by the Music Academy,, 
Madras. 

Regarding the date of Subhankara, the 
author of the two above-noted works, we have 
the following data : 

Asiatic Societv manuscript— date of copying. 

A.D. 1873. 



Supplement to Vol XXIX of the Journal of the Madras Music Academy, p. 14. 

*See Dr, S, N. Sarma on Two Orissan Commentaries on the Gita Govmda\ same journal, VoJ. XXV, pp. 130ff„ 



5 



India Office manuscript— date of copying 

A.D/1722 

Lochana Pandita borrowing from him 

C. 1700 

Ghanasyama's commentary on his 
Hastamuktavali A.D. 1675 

Sukladhvaja's quoting from him. He died 

in 1580. 

From these and the upper limit indicated 
by the works quoted by Subhankara, we may 
suppose that he flourished between the 14th 
and 16th centuries. 

Both the works of Subhankara were in 
much vogue in Eastern India, Mithila, Nepal, 
Bengal and Assam; they were esteemed in 
Orissa also as the Sangita Narayana and the 
composer Kalankura quote the Sangitadamo- 
dara. 

Sangita Kaumudi 

Sangita Narayana and Sangita Sarani quote 
a work called Sangita Kaumudi or simply 
Kaumudi which is the same as the work found 
in a manuscript available in the Madras 
Government Oriental Manuscripts Library 
(Trien. Cat 1922-23 to 24-25, No, R. 4163). 

The work is short, extending to only 25 pages 
in the manuscript. The contents of its eight 
chapters are: 1, Svara. 2* Raga. 3, 4, 5. Tala. 
6. Graha, etc., 7, Prabandha. 8. Natya. The 
last chapter thus deals with dance. 

In the Prabandha chapter (p. 17) the work 
quotes a song on the ten Avatars of Vishnu 
in which appears the name of King Sanasena 
as Its author: 

tfH^-^T^T^rf^pff fNxfw: ^t*twt ^t?j^*t 

Many more songs of this King are quoted 
and if we can identify this King* we can have 
some clue to the date of Sangita Kaumudi. 
The work seems to have been produced In 
Orissa. 

Harinayaka Suri 

Harinayaka is a writer who is known to us 
from quotations in all the Oriya writers' works, 



the Sangita Narayana of King Narayana, the 
Sangita Sarani of poet Narayana etc. All of 
them consider him a great authority. Hari- 
nayaka is given as one of his authorities by 
King Narayana ; 

Numerous quotations from Harinayaka's 
work are found in Sangita Narayana. On 
p. 16 of the Sangita Narayana, Harinayaka is 
quoted to say that Jatis are 18 in number and 
that they are the "mothers", so to say, of Ragas: 

On p. 49 he is quoted on Sankirna Ragas, 
This is a long extract from Harinayaka's work. 
On p. 54 his definitions of Anibaddha Gita 
and Alapa are given : 

In the Prabandhadhyaya he is quoted many 
times. Narayana says that Harinayaka has 
described many difficult and rare Frabandhas 
in his work from Bharata's treatise and the 
illustrations of these are .to be found in the 
Gita Prakasa. 

Kalankura Nibandha 

In the Madras Govt. Oriental Manuscripts 
Library (Trien. Cat. 1919-20 to 21-22) there is 
a work called Raga Malika described under 
No. 3176a. According to the catalogue, the 
work contains Oriya songs — Odhra-gitisahita. 
From the colophon to the manuscript des- 
cribed next to this under No* 3176b, we see 
that one Kaviratna Kalankura wrote in Oriya 
language a new version of the Raga chapter 
of Damodara's Sangita Darpana adding to it 
Oriya songs: 

The work itself seems to be called Kalan- 
kura Nibandha. On the Murti of the Raga 



Sabari, the Sangita Narayana quotes it so: 
*rf%^ ^HT§*g 

It is further quoted in the same work on the 
Murtis of the Ragas Abhiri and KhampavatL 

On pp. 84 and 85 King Narayana quotes 
one guru of his named Kaviratna, 

srf*nr*r* ^fk^ftra etc* 

The quotation gives Sangraha Slokas for Taias, 
It is likely that this Kaviralna, contemporary 
and teacher of King Narayana, is identical 
with the author of Kalankura Nibandha. 

Krishnadatta 

Of this writer nothing else is known except 
that he is quoted as a writer on music in 
Narayana ? s San git a Narayana. The name of 
his work is not known. On p, 30 of Sangita 
Narayana he is quoted to say that it is the 
Raga Devakriya that is also called Suddha 
Yasanta. 

Vachaspati 

Among the numerous writers quoted in 
Sangita Narayana, we come across one 
Vachaspati. It is not known whether he is 
really a historical personage who lived and 
wrote before or near the time of King 
Narayana or the name refers to some work in 
the name of Brhaspati the mythical guru of the 
Devas. 

Two quotations from it are found in the 
Sangita Narayana, The first is on Tala and the 
second, the following, on Lay a. 

Poet Purushottama Misra, King Narayana 
of Parlakhimedi and the Sangita Narayana 

(Last quarter of the 1 8th century) 

The Sangita Narayana of King Narayana, 
King of Parlakhimedi, or of the Khimundi 
hue, has now been made familiar by repeated 



mention above, it has been the greatest source 
of our knowledge of a large number of works 
written in Orissa which we have noticed above. 
Under his patronage and after his time, a large 
literature in music, both Lakshya and Lakshana, 
grew up in Utkal. 

The Sangita Narayana is available in the 
Madras Manuscripts Library. Trier*. Cat. 
1919-20 to 21-22, manuscript No. R, 3235, 
contains its first two chapters and Trien. Cat, 
1922-25, R, 4212, contains the remaining two 
chapters. The work is in four chapters. 

Chap, f, Nada ; Sruti, Svara, Grama, Raga, 
Gita and Tata, 

Chap. JL Vadya 
Chap, UL Nritya 
Chap. IV. Prabandlias. 

The work has travelled far and we see a 
copy of it described in the catalogue of manu- 
scripts of Jammu and Kashmir. The works 
quoted by it are : Narada Samhita, i.e., Pan- 
chama Sara Samhita, Mammata's Sangita 
Ratnamala, the commentary on the musical 
composition called Gopagovinda, Lakshmana 
Bhatta's commentary on Gita Govinda, 
Kohaliya, Matanga, Samgadeva, Sangita Siro- 
mani, Sangita Sara, S, Kaumudi, Gita Prakasa, 
Harinayaka Suri, Damodara, Vachaspati! 
Kalankura-nibandha, S, Chandrika and S. 
Kalpataru, Ail these have been noticed above. 

The author of the work shows his wide 
learning by quoting, in other branches of know- 
ledge, Vishnupurana, Kavyaprakasa, Chando 
Ratnakara and the Parasara Samhita on 
archery. The king had in his court many poets 
and scholars, one of whom is his guru Pu'rushot- 
tama Misra who had the title Kavi Ratna. 
Purushottama was himself a great composer 
and his son Narayana wrote a music work 
called S. SaranL The compositions of Puru- 
shottama are quoted in the Prabandha-coapter 
of the S, Narayana, where he is mentioned as 
Narayana's guru. The musical compositions 
of Purushottama, gathered from these quota- 
lions as also from quotations in his son's 
S. Sarani, are the following ; 

i. Ramachatulrodaya-prabandha. Ramayana 
songs. Two songs from it are quoted on pp. 
74 and 88. The songs have the Mudra of the 
authors name Purushottama. 



ri- Bal aramay ana- praba n dha . This is quoted 
by his son (on p. 16 Mad. manuscript) on his 
S. Sarani, 

iii. Ramabhyudaya-prabandha. (p. 20, S« 
Sarani.} It must be taken that the S, Narayana, 
though attributed to his patron King Narayana. 
was written by Purushottama himself, The 
introductory verses and the colophons speak 
of the king as its author. The colophon runs 
thus : 

wqfarcr^q?r: ^msnlw^^r Hrf^^rrfa 

But, in the Notices of the Rajendralal Mitra 
manuscripts catalogued by Hara Prasad Sastri, 
this Saugita Narayana. is described as the 
work of Narayanans guru Purushottama 
Kaviratna, 

Alankara Chandrika 

In the name of Narayana there are other 
works also. Alankara Chandrika is one of 
them. It is not a work on poetics but on the 
Alankaras in singing. This special work on 
Alankaras by him is quoted by him on p. 15 of 
his S. Narayana. 

IT^~^«FTT^5^mt m SPTfe^n; : if 

Most likely Purushottama is the real author 
of this work also. Besides this there are quoted 
in the S. Narayana some songs bearing the 
authorship-mudra of King Narayana Gajapati. 

Sangita Narayana is quoted in later works 
of Orissa like Sangita Sarani and the Kavj- 
chintamam. 

The work opens with an account of the 
dynasty of King Narayana who belongs to the 
Ganga dynasty. He was the son of Padmanabha. 
According to Banerjee's History of Orissa 
(Vol II, p. L20) a Narayana of Parlakhimedi 



attacked King Virakisora of the house of 
Khurda, who ruled upto A.D. 1779. R, SewelL 
in Archaeological Survey of South India 
(part II, p-186) mentions a Viraprataparudra 
Narayana Deva, son of Padmanabha as having 
lived between 1748 and 1766 A.D. Almost all 
the Khimedi chiefs have the name Narayana 
and identification of this; writer is, therefore, 
rather difficult. 

The Sangita Sarani of Poet Narayana 

As noted above, Poet Narayana, son of 
the guru of King Narayana. Le*, of Purushot- 
tama, wrote a music work called the Sangita 
Sarani s which is available in the Madras Govern- 
ment Oriental Manuscripts Library. (Trien, 
Cat, 3919-22, RJ29S.) The introductory verses 
and the colophon give some information about 
the author, his father etc. 

^ff^rrfrc^fa^r^^ 

The work is called the 'Road to Music' 
and so its chapters are called ; Pravesas\ i.e.. 
"approaches*. He quotes the S. Narayana of 
his father or patron and all the writers quoted 
therein. 

Si Sarani quotes also poet Narayanans own 
musical compositions as also those of his father. 
Poet Narayana is a prolific composer. His 
musical poems are : 

i. Balabhadranjaya-prabandha: A song in 
Dhanasi Raga from this is quoted on p. 13. 

5rsn^ ^f^?JN 

More songs from this are given on pp, 1 7 and 20, 
iL San karav ih ara -p a ban dha : 



Songs from this are quoted on pp. 14, 16, 18 
and 19. 

iii, Vshabh ilasha-prabandha is quoted on 
p. 17. 

iv. Krishn a v ilasa -p tab an dh a is quoted on 
pp. 30-34. 

The song ends thus: ^r^fef SrfipfrsnfTOfirjr 

Narayana speaks of two varieties of Prabandhas, 
Suddha-prabandhas and Sutra-prabandhas. AH 
compositions of his father belong to the former 
class, as also the four above referred to 
compositions of Narayana himself. A Suddha- 
prabandha is like the Gita Govinda, with the 
several songs in it set to different Ragas, As 
different from this, the second variety of Sutra- 
prabandha is sung to the end in only one fixed 
Raga, Says Narayana on p. 38: 

Narayana composed musical poems of this 
class also. Two of them, he quotes in his 
Sangita Sarani. 

v, Gundicha vijaya-sulra-prabandha : Gundicha 
is a festival of the deity Jagannatha in the place 
near the shrine called Nilagiri; this place is at 
the end of the Car-road in front of the temple; 
the composition is on a special Yatra taking 
place there and is in Sanskrit mixed with Oriya. 

v 1 . Ramabhyudaya- sutra-prabandha : 

mfk: i 

This Ramabhyudaya is a Sutra-prabandha 
whereas his father's Ramabhyudaya, referred to 
previously ? is a Suddha-prabandha. 

The Sutra-prabandha which is a composition 
to be sung in a single Raga throughout is the 
Raga Kavya of old, which is a variety of 



Uparupaka or semi-dramatic or operatic com- 
position described by Kohala, It is described 
by Abhlnavagupta in his commentary on the 
Natya Sastra, He gives two instances of this 
Raga Kavya. Abhinavagupta says that the Raga 
Kavya called Raghava Vijaya is sung through- 
out only in Thakka Raga and the Raga Kavya 
called Mariehavadha, only in Kakubha-Grama- 
raga. 

Sangita Kamada 

The Adyar Library contains a music work 
of this name. It is a work belonging to this 
class of treatises produced in Orissa. The 
manuscript is in Oriva script. (Adyar Cat. 
Vol. 2, p. 46), 

The Kavichintamani of Gopinatha Kavibhhusana 

Kavichintamani is a work mainly on poetics 
and dramaturgy but it devotes its last chapter, 
the 24th, to music. In this last chapter, Sangita 
Nirupana, the Sangita Narayana and most of 
the writers quoted therein are quoted. 

The author Gopinatha has written many 
musical compositions in Sanskrit and Oriya. 
One Sanskrit musical poem of his called Rama 
Vihara Gita is twice referred to in Chapters 
1 and 3. 

He cites this Ramachandra Vihara of his as 
an example of a Gita Kavya. 

The work is described in the Madras Trien. 
Cat. 1919-22, R. 2925. The first 23 chapters on 
Alankara and drama quote numerous Alankara 
works, Gopinatha is the son of Vasudeva 
Patro of Karana family, who was the guru and 
court physician of King Jagannatha Narayana. 

^^f^crrsr^i^ ^fasT^ 



Many were the Khimundi Zamindars who, 
as already stated, had the name Narayanadeva, 
We have three chiefs of the name Jagannatha 
Narayanadeva, according to the genealogical 
list in SeweH's Archcological Survey of South 
India (Part II, p. 186). 

Sarvajna Jagannatha Narayanadeva 
1686-1702 ATX 

Jagannatha Narayanadeva 
1766-1806 A«D, 

Jagannatha Gajapati Naravanadeva 
1843^1850 A.D/ 

It is likely that the second of these three is 
the patron of Gopinatha. 

Tanadhikara 

The Sanglta Narayana similarly quotes on 
Tana, on p. 14: 

From the name it is not possible to decide that 
Tanadhikara is a separate work. It may be 
the chapter on Tana in some well-known work. 

Sangita Siromani 

King Narayana quotes a Siromani in his 
S. Narayana (p. 4, Mad. Manuscript). Again 
on p. 55 it is quoted by Narayana on the three 
Avayavas of a Prabandha. 

From its being quoted more than once in the 
dance-chapter we can see that the work dealt 
with dance also. 

Extensive and informative extracts are given 
from the beginning of the ms. of this work in 
the Asiatic Society Catalogue (Vol, XVI) and 
there is also a detailed notice of this work 
in a paper of the late Shri M, R, Kavi 1 . The 
Sultan of Kadah, who sponsored this work and 
at whose instance Pandits compiled it, is men- 
tioned as Malik Sarak Sultan Sahar, son of 



Bahadur Malik, and subordinate of Ibrahim 
(c. 1409-1414) who invaded Bengal and re- 
established Islam there, 

^¥R^f cFW ^°*TT lft^Tq^r% | 
* * ¥ 

Just as later it is said by Jagajjyotirmalla 
of Nepal, it is said that this Sultan also brought 
a copy of Bharata's text from the South, as also 
other texts on music from other parts of India. 
And here the work gives 1 a list of the music 
texts used in it and the rarer among these 
names may be noted : 

L Sangitasagara; 2, Sangitadipika; 3. 
Vadimattagajankusa; 4. Talarnava; 5, Sangita- 
kalpavriksha ; 6, Sangitamudra ; 7. Sangita- 
sarakahka; 8, Sangitavinoda which may be the 
Sangita Vidyavinoda noted elsewhere in this 
paper; 9. Manohara which may be the Mana- 
manohara quoted in the Sangitamuktavali 
of Devana; 10. Bharati ( }); 1 1. the commentary 
Balabodhana, The Pandits were brought from 
ali parts of India, given villages and money and 
asked to compile this work. 

The colophon also says that the work was 
the joint production of these experts from 
different parts oflndia: 

The exact date of the compilation of this 
work is also given in the text. 



1 "Indian Music under a Sultan " f Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society, Raiahmundry 
XI, iii-iv, pp. 173-186, 



10 



i,e. Samvat 1485 and Saka 1350 which come 
to A.D. 1427-8, According to the table of 
contents furnished in the work, it dealt with the 
whole field of music, as also with dance, 

Of the rarer works mentioned here and 
noted above, the Vadimattagajankusa is found 
in a ms. in the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, 
Catalogue Vol. Xi\, No. 310, known also as 
Gitalankara. 

5T*n^ ^cfr *r^*r mi frr^ f^n i 

See also No. 68, Asiatic Society Catalogue XVL 
the ms, described under the title Ganasastra 
and the Nepal Darbar Catalogue J, p. 24 L 

Set ngtt ak a! pad ruma and Sangitasa rak alik a 
are noticed elsewhere in this paper. 

The Sangita Sagara of Pratap Singh 
1770-1804 A. 

Maharaj Pratapa Simha Deva of Jaipur 
who ruled between 17794804 A. D„ was a great 
music-enthusiast. He is said to have brought 
together a number of music experts and 
produced a music work called Sangita Sagara, 
which work, by reason of his patronage of its 
many authors, is attributed to him. 

Rudrd-damanidbhava Sutra Vivaranam 

The Bikaner Catalogue (p. 519, No. .1107) 
mentions an interesting music work of the 
above name. Sanskrit Vyakarana Sastra says 
that its alphabet in the Sutras 3tr^*r etc. are 
called Mahesvara Sutras because they emanated 
from the Nada manifested by Rudra by his 
hand -drum, damaru. which he sounded at the 
end of his dance. There is also this well-known 
verse on it: 



Nandikesvara, it is mentioned in the- 
Vyakarana-commentary named Balamanorama, 
commented upon these Mahesvara Sutras. This 
is evidently a reference to the work called 
Nan d ikes varak as ik a. 

Every aspect of Nada was made manifest 
from Lord Nataraja who dances the great 
cosmic dance, Siva is the God of Vyakarana, 
of dance and of music. The work now under 
notice, viz,, the Rudra Damarudbhava Sutra 
Vivarana tries to give an exposition of above 
legend of the origin of these Sutras and of the 
Sutras themselves as the basic sounds of music 
as derived from Siva's hand-drum Dhakka. The 
author of the work is not known. The whole 
text of this was presented as found in the 
Bikaner manuscript by K. M. K. Sarma in the 
New Indian Antiquary, June 1943, pp. 64-67, 
and in the same journal, January 1944, pp. 235-6,. 
the present writer published a critical note on 
the text reconstructing the corrupt passages and 
throwing light on the real nature of this work. 
It was shown there that the bulk of the 45 
verses here were taken from the Sangita- 
ratnakara. With some it has become fashionable 
to exaggerate such mystic and high sounding 
textual materials. Alain Danielou has presented 
the text with a translation in the Journal of 
the Madras Music Academy, XXU,pp. 119428. 

Asoka Malia's Work 

We know of a writer on music named 
Asoka Malla from the Bikaner Catalogue (p. 514, 
manuscript 10%). The name of his work is not 
known. It treats of music and dance but only 
its chapter on dance is available in the Bikaner 
Library. It mentions a source called Sudhabdhi 
and stops with the description of 22 kaiasams. 

Bharata Nama Dipaka Nada Sastram 

A work with this cumbrous name in hundred 
and eleven verses, dealing with dance and 
music, is described in the Nepal Darbar Library 
Catalogue (p. 231). Its author is not known. 

Sangita Sudhanidhi 

This is a work on music of which we know 
only from a citation from it in Raghava Bhatta's, 
commentary on the" Sakimtala (p. 185, Kale's 
Edn>). The work must have dealt with music 
and dance, the quotation by Raghava Bhatta 
being on Aharyabhinaya (make-up) which 
pertains to Natya, 



11 



Sangita Kalpadruma 

A Sangitakalpataru has already been 
noticed; a S. Kalpavriksha is mentioned in the S. 
Siromani (1428 A,D.). Aufrecht mentions a 
S. Kalpadruma and says that it is described in 
a Panjab Catalogue (Radh. 38). A Sangita 
Kalpadruma is quoted by Bhava Bhatta and 
two mss. of a S, Kalpadruma are available in 
the Ramsingh Library, Srinagar (Nos. 1885 and 
1890), There is also a S. Raga Kalpadruma by 
one Kri shnananda-vyasa of the 19th century, a 
ms. which is described in the Bhandarkar 
Institute Catalogue, XII, 330, and another is 
available in the Palace Library, Kotah State. 

Saogita Chandrodaya 

Many Sanskrit authorities are quoted by 
Cangaram in his Hindi Commentary on the 
S. Ratnakara, One of the Sanskrit works here 
quoted is the Sangita Chandrodaya, It is 
twice quoted in the Svaradhyaya portion. 

dflfaRHftad — 

^r#T ^Tf^ST? tt^ TT*T 

m h^s^t: ^¥3t*rt w^t^r: i \ 

It is again quoted as his authority on p. 66 
(Tanjorc Ms), The verse quoted defines the 
^amaka called Prenkhaka and runs thus: 

The Taladasapranadipika of Govinda 

In Burnell's Tanjore Catalogue, a work of 
the above name attributed to one Govinda 
is noted. One is likely to mistake It for a 
theoretical treatise on Tala. I went through 
the work and found it to be a poem in Telugu* 
in the form of songs on Sri Rama, each song, 
however, being illustrative of a Tala, Just as 
we have Bhattikavya, a poem illustrating the 
Vyakarana Sastra, so also we have here a poem 
for Tala. It is a <n*RST*T *TfR^r | The colophon 
calls it a ^T^nTTrT^W^WT and ^TM^TSTFrflPl^TI 

*TO*?rf5rfa* w^^mm i^^mmm 



according to the second colophon)- ?T^T 

Thus this work is similar to Tippa Bhupala's 
Talaprabandha, a music composition on Siva 
illustrating each Tala, which we noticed above 
under the title Taladipika, Similarly we have 
the Tala Malika compositions on 108 Talas, 
of which 56 are available in print, of Rama- 
swam i Dikshitar, father of the celebrated 
Carnatic composer, Muthusvami Dikshitar, 

The Natya Chudamam or Svara Raga Sudba 
Rasa of Somanarya 

The Madras Government Oriental Mss. 
Library contains two mss, of a work called 
Natya Chudamani by one Somanarya, one a 
fragment of the Svaradhyaya and the next 
chapter and the other containing a longer 
portion of the work. They are respectively 
described under Nos. R. 366 in the Trien. Cat, 
1910-11 to 12-13 and D. 12998 in the Des. Cat. 
Vol, XXII. The latter ms, is accompanied by 
a Telugu gloss. 

The work deals with all branches of music 
and dance. Its author Somanarya is art 
Ashtavadhani, one who can attend to eight 
things at a time. He says: 

A fragment of this work was secured from 
private possession by the late P. S. Sundaram 
Aiyar of Tanjore and produced as the Svarar- 
nava connected with Sri Tyagayya's life (vide 
my article on 'Some more Early Writers on 
Music' in Vol. Ill of the Journal of the Madras 
Music Academy), 

Some of the followers of the Tyagaraja 
tradition say that three works Svararnava, 
Ragarnava and Sudharnava or Sudhambudhi 
are referred to by Tyagaraja in his Kirtana 
4 Svara- raga-sudha- rasa' , but I had already 
pointed out that this supposition was not 
sensible and that we had in the Madras Govern- 
ment Oriental Mss. Library a ms. having the 
name 'S vara -raga-sudha- rasa*. Its Tala chapter 
with a Telugu Tika is described in the Madras 
Oriental Mss, Library, Des, Cat. VoL XXII, 



12 



R. 12998. This Svara-raga-sudha-rasa is 
the same work as the Natya Chudamani of 
Somanarya, for we find in the beginning of 
the Ragadhyaya Somanarya calling his work by 
that name, 

The colophon also says so : 

Regarding the date of the work, we can 
only say that it is later than that of the author 
of Ragavibodha, Somanatha {1609 A.D.\ who 
is quoted in the section called Chaturanga- 
prastara in the Raga chapter. 

The fact may be that it . is a still later 
production, 

Raga Pradipa 

There is a work of this name available in 
the Madras Government Oriental Mss. Library 
(Trien. Cat. 1913-16, R. 1728). Its author is 
not known. The ms, is incomplete. The work 
deals with Ragas only. In Chap* I, it first 
enumerates the Ragas by their names and then 
describes 36 Suddha-madhyama Ragas. 

Chap. II is devoted to Prati-madhyama Raga. 
Thus this seems to be a very late production 
dealing with the 72 Melas of Carnatic music. 

Arjunadimata Sara of Sudtfha Saliva 
Venkatacharya 

Another work on music and dance available 
in the Madras Oriental Library is Suddha 
Sattva Venkatacharya's compilation from 
various older books. Though it is called 
Bharata Sastra it treats of music elaborately. 
Chapters 1 and 2 deal with Natya and 2 and 5 
with Tala. The work is unfortunately incom- 
plete. 



Varnalaghuvyakhyana of Rama 

One Rama seems to have written a special 

treatise on Varna and a commentary on it, 

called V a rn ala gh u v y a khy a na (Madras Trien. 
Cat. 1919-22, R. 3942c). 

Rama is a Tamilian as is clear from the 
Tamil equivalents of the technical names given 
by him. 

Tala Lakshanam 

This is an anonymous work on Tala avail- 
able in the Madras Government Oriental 
Mss. Library (Des. Cat, Vol, XXJI, D. 12993). 
AH that can be said of its date is that it is later 
than Saradatanaya's Bhavaprakasa which it 
'quotes. 

Mridaitga Lakshanam 

This work is on manufacture etc, of the 
Mridanga. Its author is not known. Two 
mss* of it are available with a Telugu Tlka in 
the Madras Mss. Library (Des. Cat. Vol. XXII, 
D. 13011 and 13012), The work gives in the 
beginning a new legend of how the first 
Mridanga was manufactured by Vishnu out of 
the skin of Vritra and Mura, two demons 
whom he killed. This legend thus differs from 
the one found in Bharata' s Natya Sastra 
according to which sage Svati first created the 
Pushkara drum on a rainy day. 

The Sangita Muktavali of Devendra 

The Bikaner Catalogue describes on p. 521 1 
No* 1112, a work on music by one Devendra 
called the Sangita Muktavali, The ms. there 
described contains only the last chapter dealing 
with Nartana. Devendra is described in the 
colophon as a master of vocal and instru- 
mental music and of dance: ^fay f^mft r: & 

Four copies of a work of this name are 
available in the Tanjore Library and ail of 
them are incomplete, containing only the^ 
Nrityadhyaya. One ms. in palm leaf and 
Telugu script, however, contains a larger por- 
tion (Burnell 1 1513). The colophon here gives 
the author as Devanacharya: 



13 



Among the authorities enumerated by 
Devendra at the end of his work is to be noted 
a new name Rudrasena which we do not come 
across elsewhere: 

In the course of the work, Devendra quotes 
the following authorities not found elsewhere: 
Vidyavinoda, which as suggested above, may 
be Sangita Vidya Vinoda, Kaladhara and 
Manamanohara. 

On Ekanghri-Lohadi : q^Tg ^TTerC— 
ir^rr^^ cft|fr ftRT^ ^T^f ^\ rffe I 

On the patas or rhythm-bols of Sabda-Cali 
having emanated from Siva's faces : 

The Manamonohara may be the Manohara 
mentioned in the Sangitasiromani. 

The date of the Sangita Muktavali cannot 
be easily determined. From the topics and 
the treatment it appears to have been composed 
in South India in the great days of the art in 
Tanjore and some of the Telugu courts. The 
treatment is full of practical details and tech- 
nical terms in Telugu and Tamil and references 
to Telugu and Tamil teachers of the art. At the 
end of one section, the author pays obeisance 
to his Guru Rudra : 

*ft *rcr: f*Ri qftnftr sj^fa s-^r^fr 

Raga Mala of Kshemendra and Ratnamala of 
Jathara Bhupati 

A Pathaka, songster, named Kshemendra 
.alias Kshemakarna or Meshakarna, son of 
Mahesa Pathaka, has written a Raga Mala and 
the Bikaner Catalogue describes it on p. 56 
under No, 1 101. The colophon says: 



The Bikaner Catalogue says further that 
this same Raga Mala is also called Ratnamala. 
But, on examination, we can see that the 
Ratnamala is a separate work written by a king 
called in a verse there Jathara-hhupati, King 
of Jathara, Perhaps he was the patron of the 
above said Kshemakarna. 

The Oxford Mss, Catalogue by Aufrecht 
describes two mss. of this Raga Mala of 
Kshemakarna Pathaka on p. 201b under Nos. 
481 and 482. The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 
has a ms. of it (Cat. XIV, 62), as also the 
Dahiiaxmj Library, Nadiad (XXXVII, 4). 

The Raga Mala of Jivaraja Dikshita 

There is another Raga Mala written by one 
Jivaraja Dikshita, A ms, of this work is avail- 
able in the Bhandavkar Institute, Poona (349 
of 1895-98; Des. Cat XU, 35) and another is 
described in the Notices of Mss. by R. Mitra, 
Vol. VI t, p. 261. The work treats of northern 
Ragas and their Raginis, their putras and the 
proper times for their singing. There is this 
verse at the end : 

4 Is. 

The Raghava mentioned as the prompter 
of the work may be God Rama, some King, his 
Guru, pupil or some friend. 

Another Raga Maia 

The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 
has a Raga Mala which is called in the end 
Dakshini Raga Mala (Ms, No. 384 of 1895-98; 
Descriptive Cat. XII, 311). This small work 
describes 6 Ragas: Sriraga, Vasanta, Panchama, 
Bhairva, Megharaga and Natanarayana. 

The Section on Music in Oddisa-Mahamantrodaya 

There is a fragment on Tala Vadyas 
described under the name Talavidhana 
in the Madras Oriental Library, (Trien. 
Cat. 1916-19 ; R. 2779). This Talavidhana 
or according to the text Taia-vadya- 
vidhana is a small part of a separate section 
on music in a big semi-puranic Tantra- 
Mantra treatise of unknown date called the 
Oddisa-Mahamantrodaya. The section now 
available to us describes the Avanaddha Vadyas, 
Mridanga, etc. The work is cast in the form 
of a dialogue between Siva and Parvati, the 
former enlightening the latter on various 



[4 



subjects. We find the following, indicating the 
nature of the work: 

^fe^^nr^ft^r rrr^r^rr^r (w#*r etc. 

The music section of the Mantra work is 
given as the sixth section of the 81st chapter. 
Talavadyas are proposed to be treated in 16 
chapters, The Vadyas to be dealt with are also 
given as 16 in number, — Pataha, Jhallari, Bheri, 
Maddala, etc. The Oddisa is enumerated 
among the sources in the music section of the 
Sivatattvaratnakara. 

Similarly the Kasyapa Tantra and the Uttara 
Karana Agama are said to treat of music. 

Sangita Sara Kaiika 

From p. 54 of S. R, Bhandarkar's Report of 
the 2nd Tour for Skr. Mss, in Rajputana and 
Central India, we come to know of a writer on 
music named S add ha Svarnakara Moshadeva, 
a strange name indeed, "arch-thief who is a 
pure goldsmith'. It is seen that he is also a 
master of mathematics besides music and is 
known to have written a commentary on 
Lilavati. In music, he is the author of a work 
called Sangita Sara Kaiika. This work should 
be earlier than A.D. 1427 when the Sangita- 
siromani which mentions it was compiled. There 
is a ms, of the work in the Dahi Laxmi Library, 
Nadiad (XXXVII 8), 

Sangita Kaiika 

There is another music work with a some- 
what similar name, Sangita Kaiika. It is 
quoted by Hemadri in his commentary on 
the Raghuvamsa. (Mad. Ms. R. 3376, p. 236,) 
From the quotation it is seen that the work 
dealt with Natya also. Hemadrrs date is 
1250-3 300 A.D. 

The Sangita Sudha of BUima Nareudra 

The Oudh Catalogue (X, p. 12) contains the 
description of a work called Sangita Sudha, 
which has to be distinguished from the South 
Indian S. Sudha of Govinda Dikshita. The 
author of this Sangita Sudha is one King 
Bhima Narendra. 

The Sruti Bhaskara of Bhimadeva 

Another writer named Bhimadeva, who may 
or may not be the same as the above-said Bhima 



Narendra 3 is the author of a work called Sruti 
Bhaskara. The work is very comprehensive 
and besides dealing with music and dance, it 
treats of Rasa and Drama also, 

A ms, of it is described in the Bikaner 
Catalogue, p. 530, No. 1129. 

Tala Kala Vilasa 

In the Ms, Library of the Bhandarkar Insti- 
tute, Poona, there is a treatise called Natya- 
sarvasva-dipika by Narayana Sivayogin and in 
that work is quoted thrice (pp. 34, 36 and 37) a 
work on Tala of this name. Its author is not 
known. 

Sangita Mani Darpanam 

The above-said work in the Bhandarkar 
Institute ms, quotes another music work of the 
name Sangita-mani-darpanam, of which also 
the author is not known* 

Natya Sarvasva Dipika (also called Adi Bharata) 
by Narayana Sivayogin 

This work is available in the Bhandarkar 
Oriental institute. (No. 41 of 1916-18 ; Des. 
Cat, Vol. XII, No. 344). The ms. is from the 
Telugu country. On p. 28a we find this 
colophon : 

On page 8 the following verse enlightens us 
about the author, his parentage, etc, 

^^T^tt ^^Riwtf: II 

He calls the work Natya-sarvasva-dipika 
and Adi Bharata, ^amforaf TOTOinfir \ 
The author's name is also variously given as 
Narayana, Siddha Sivayogiraja, Sivayogin and 



15 



The ms. gives a table of contents at the 
beginning, from which we see that the work 
treats fully of Natya and Gita. In music, vocal 
and instrumental branches are dealt with, Tala. 
Venu, Vina, Dhakka, Mridanga are dealt with 
Natva of Angas and Upangas are given. 
Bharata is here reproduced. The work speaks 
also of the manufacture of instruments, of 
bronze Talas etc. 

The work borrows from the Ratnakara ; 
Kolialamata is quoted on Tala. S. Chudamani 
and S. Vidyavinoda are quoted. Besides these, 
the following new works are known from quota- 
tions here— Sangi tar nava, Tala Kala Vilasa and 
S. Mani Darpanam. 

Another interesting work quoted herein is 
Caiurasabhavilasa, a work treating of all the 
arts flourishing in the King's court. Of some 
of these works, we have spoken above> 

The Ramakautuhala of Ramakrishna Bhatta 

Bhava Bhatta quotes a work called Raga 
Kutuhala. Its author is not given by him. 
We come across a work called Rama (ga?) 
Kautuhaia by one Ramakrishna Bhatta sub- 
titled as Sangita Saroddhara which is described 
on p, 518 under No, 1106 in the Bikaner Cata- 
logue, It is not unlikely that Rama Kautuhaia 
is an error for Raga Kutuhala* The colophon 
runs thus ; 

The work thus deals with dance also. It 
may also be likely that Ramakautuhala alias 
S. Saroddhara of Ramakrishna Bhatta derives 
its name from some other circumstance like 
the praise of god Rama in the work and is thus 
different from the Raga Kutuhala quoted by 
Bhava Bhatta. 

Sangita Sara Sangraha 

An anonymous work of this name is noticed 
in Rice's Catalogue of MssJn Mysore andCoorg 
{p. 292). Oppert also notices it as a ms. avail- 
able at Conjeevaram (Vol. 1, 1052). This S. 
Sara Sangraha must be distinguished from that 
of King Jagajjyotirmalla noticed above and a 
modern compilation of that name published 
from Bengal which we shall mention presently. 



The Bharata Sastra of Raghunathaprasada 

A writer named Raghunatha Prasada wrote 
a work called Bharata Sastra on Music and 
dance, in the form of a dialogue between sage 
Bharata and God Siva, The work is available 
in the Tanjore Library and is incomplete. 
(New Catalogue No. 10669,) 

its contents are ; Nada and its origin, 
defects of singers, sruti, svara. murcchana, 
tana, alankara, gamaka, alapti, raga and 
prabandhas. Burneil has given ths name of 
the author in his Catalogue as Raghunatha and 
of the work as Bharata Sastram. On the ms. 
we find Bharata Sastra-ragadisvara-mrnaya and 
Ragadisvaran irnay a ? Raghunatha Prasadakrita* 

The colophon also gives the author as one 
Raghunatha Prasada. 

The work is in very bad Sanskrit, most verses 
having neither metre nor meaning. 

Taddhittonnam and Jati 

In the Tanjore Library we have two works 
dealing with that branch of Tala called Konnak- 
kol, which is, so to say, 'vocal Mridangam\ 
The work called 'Taddhittonnam' has three 
copies and that called Jati has nine copies. 
Both these deai with KonnakkoL (Burneil 
11516b and 11608; New Cat. 10848 and 
10851.) 

Sangita Siddhanta of Ramananda Tirtha 

This work is known to us from a notice of 
it in R. L. Mitra's Notices of Mss, No. 1017. 
A ms + of it is available in Nabadwip, West 
Bengal {King Edward Anglo-Sanskrit Library, 
No, 898). 

Sangitaragalakshna and Sangitasagara 

These two works are noticed respectively 
in the North Western Provinces Catalogue 
(VI 28) and in the Punjab Catalogue of Pt. 
Radhakrishna (41). 

Raga Chandrika 

This deals with Ragas in 143 verses. 



16 



Ashtottara-sata Tala 

This is a small work on 108 Talas. 

The Raga Lakshanam 

This deals with Camatie Music. 

The above three works have been published 
from Bombay. 

Another small work published from Bombay 
is Chatvarimsatraganirupana^ 'treatment of 40 
Ragas', which borrows from Sarngadeva and is 
attributed to Narada, 

A work called Sangiia Sara Sangraha has 
been published from Bengal. l£ is a modern 
compilation by the well-known scholar and 
patron Sourindramohan Tagore. It is in six 
chapters, dealing with Natya also in the last 
chapter, 

SOME MODERN WORKS 

AppaTulasi alias Kasinatha wrote two works 
in 1914 A.D., named Ragakalpadruma, speaking 
of 120 Ragas of the North from Bhairavi to 
Lalita, and Sangkasudhakara in two chapters, 
dealing mainly with Ragas numbering 125. A 
third work by Appa Tulasi is on Tala called 
Abhinavatalamanjari. 

Another modern work of this class is the 
well-known Lakshyasangita of Mr. Bhatkhande. 

N Vishnusarma* (Mr. Bhatkhande) brought 
out in 1921 A,D. (Poona) a text called Abhinava- 
ragamanjari. 

In the South, few have been the modern 
works written in Sanskrit, though the output 
in Tamil and English is noteworthy, But some 
new Sanskrit works were undertaken by the 
late Sri Huhigur tCrishnachariar of Hubli, by 
Sri P. G. Sundaresa Sastri of TiruchL and by 
Sri P. S, Subrahmanya Sastrigal of Tanjore 
(Adhunika-Sangita— Music of Today). 

Fragmentary Manuscripts 

Each library , and each catalogue, besides 
giving us complete works on music and dance, 
or on music only, or on a branch of music only, 
supplies us also with a number of fragments, A 
list of them is appended here. 

/. The Madras Oriental Mss. Library con- 
tains the following fragments: 



1. Raga-varna-nirupana (Des. Catalogue 
No. 13013) on Ragas ; begins with Sourashtra 
and ends with Kalyani. 

2. Sangita-Vishaya (Des, Cat. No. 130277), 
enumerates 72 Ragas, 

and so en and then defines them briefly ; it 
deals with the Carnatic Mefakarta scheme of 
Ragas as it prevails* 

3. Gityadidoshavichara— A discussion as to 
what are considered flaws or mistakes in songs. 
The subject is interesting and the ms. is com- 
plete (Triem Cat. 1919-22, R. 3l76f), The work 
comes from Orissa. 

IL The Saraswati Mahal Library, Tanjore. 

1. Ragalakshana : Many fragments with 
this name, giving the lakshana of various Ragas 
are found. 

2. Ragadivichara. 

3. Suladi (5 mss,)— compositions, 

4. Tananighantu. This has more recently 
been published in Vols. V1MX of the Library's 
Journal. It is a curious work assigning ideas 
and feelings as meanings to different Tanas, 
combinations of Ta and Na employed in Tana- 
singing. That is the meaning of the name of 
the work "Lexicon of Tana". This is a highly 
imaginative thing and seems to be very much 
of an exaggeration. See also above the work 
called Sangita Chintamani, Tanjore ms, 

5. Abhinayalakshana by Sringarasekhara. 
(New Cat, 10684). 

6. Abhinayalakshana- Anon. Several mss. 

7. Talaprastara — Several fragments. 

///, Oppert's Catalogue of Mss. in South 
India— VoL I 

1. Talaprastara, No. 2850. 

2. Ragalakshana, No, 6166. 

3. Ragotpatti (6167). 

4. Saptasvara-lakshana, 

5. Svaraprastara (6293), 

6. Svarasamucchaya 
Vol. IL 

7. Melaraga-svarasangraha (8527) 



17 



IV* The Trimndrum Palace Library Ragadhyaya noted previously. 



Catalogue, Nos. 1421-2 Svarataladilakshana 
with Malayalam commentary. 

K Vth Report of the search for Skr, Mss. 
in Bombay by Peterson (p. 262). No. 400 : 
Sankirnaragah. This in ay be the Sankirna 



VL The An up Library Catalogue, Bikatier. 
Ragadhyanadikathanadhyaya (p. 51 5, No. 1099), 
perhaps a chapter of some bigger work. The 
ms. describes the Ragas with their Svaras, 
Murtis and appropriate times for singing them* 




IS 



AN OUTLINE LITERARY HISTORY OF INDIAN MUSIC* 

Db V, Raghavan / 

The earliest music of India is to be looked for in Vedic literature, 
the Samans representing the earliest songs. The Saman is the 
musical treatment of the Rk, which forms the libretto (yoni). 
While being rendered thos into melodies or Samans, which 
are said to number some thousand?, the text of the Rks 
undergo several modifications, sometimes out of all recognition, - 
splitting, dragging, repeating, stopping and so on. There are one 
thousand aids to S a man singing. Stobbas or syllables of no parti- 
cular meaning are profusely employed, such as him, att, ho t va, i/w, 
hvrr. kaya, yt t divah t these Sthobas being classified into those of 
Varna, Pada and Vakva and analysed with reference to context and 
meaning like Blessing, Eulogy, and Complaint. The Rtobhas are also 
called Phuliaor Pushpa, meaning blown, or blossom, probably because 
these musical additions to a bare text compares to a bare twig being 
thrown into bloom. From the point of view of both singing and ritual, 
the S a man books are divided into several groups. S a man-singing is 
referred to many times in the Rgvedic hymns thenwtlves and in 
the Brahmanosand the rpanisbmla some Kumans figure prominently 
as part of the my s tic exercises. Besides vocal singing, instrumental 
music also formed part of the Vedic sacrifices and the Vedas mention 
all the three classes of instruments, of percussion, wind and strings. 
A Suman»singer ie called S&ma*ga or Chandoga and there were 
different singers for the different parts of the 8a man singing, the 
Uinkara, Prostata, Udgitha, Prathih&ra, Upadrava, Nidhana, and 
Pranava. Some sages are also mentioned as promulgators of certain 
Saman- melodies. Some of the ancillary texta of the Stonaveda apeak 
of the musical notes of the Sa man-singing as seven S«mavidh«nabra* 
hmana, Arseyabrahmana, etc.), viz., Krushta, Pratbama, Dvitiya 
Trt iya, Catnrtba, Mandra or Pancama, Sashiha or Antya, or 
Atisvarya. We do not know when the Saman came to be sung in 
seven notes ; in more than one context, the words Arcika, Gathika, 
and Sa mika are used in referring to Svaraa or Groups of Svaraa, 
intervals of one, two ard three, from which we may assume that w> 
begin with, the Saman was sung to three or four notes; the next 
svara came to be simply called the othtr Svara, Nvaranatra. A later 
treatise which gives us some guidance on the subject of Saman- sing- 

* This is an outline of a detailed account compiled by the present writer* 
In this outline, Tamil ttourcee are not touched. 



FARTS I- IV] AH OUTLINE LITEBAftY HISTORY OF INDIAN MUSIC (36 

ingis the Siltshu ascribed to N u rada where we are told that the sacred 
Sama -Svaras, Krasta r Pratharna etc. correspond to the secular 
Svaras on the Hate in the order Madhyama, Gindhura, Rishfnhn, 
Shadja, Dhaivata, Nfisbnda, Pancama, giving up not a straight progres- 
sion but an irregular one (Vakragati). The Saman-notes were in a 
descending series (Nidhana-prakriti), and in contradiction to what the 
Nurada Sikaha says, Sayan a equates the notes of the Saman to the 
secular svaras in a regular reverse order, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Ri, Sa, 
Mention is also made in the Nuradaeiksha" to the 'Gatravina' or *tbe 
lute of tbe palm' with the seven svaras fixed to tbe different points 
on the fingers as tbe guide to Sa man -singers. Even now, there are 
differing schools of Saman-singing. Tbe Samans do not, all of them, 
take all the seven notes, and in terms of modern melody-types of the 
Carnatio School of Indian music, we find shades of Ruga Kharahara- 
priyiora derivative thereof, or part of Bbairavi occurring in S^iim 
gun as, bat the exact svarasthunas ar^ slightly different from the 
corresponding ones of tbe music of today. ^VC? 

It is from this Siunan music did the further music of India 
develop. The music lore is considered to be derived from tbe Sanaa- 
veda and the primary treatise is said to be an Upaveda called tbe 
Q&ndharvaveda. We do not possess any text now of this name and 
description, but a later Taiitric treatise mentions tbe Gandharva 
veda as a text on music in 36,000 anushtubhs. The earliest treatise 
we now have is the NatyaSaStra of Bharata where music is dealt with 
as an aid to dramatic representation. Tradition says that Bharata's 
text was preceded by two texts of Sadasiva and Brahma, and the 
text of Bharata itself presupposes works ascribed not only to these 
two mythological authors but to Narada too. In fact, in later 
musical literature a plethora of mythological figures, male and 
female, appears as early music-authors ; while it is possible that there 
are music works ascribed to these mythological names, NJrada, 
Tumburu, Kambala, Asvatara, Arjuna etc., we cannot vouchsafe for 
the antiquity of these texts. 

After the period of the sacred Saman-singing, we have the second 
period called Gandharva or Marga. The Gandharva is also a kind 
of sacred music and represents a counterpart of Vedie Saman. The 
Gandharva or Marga songs are in classic Sanskrit so far as their lan- 
guage goes ; their authorship is assigned to Brahma himself, and to 
put them further on a par with the Veda, their svara-notatioo is 
made immutable and its faithful rendering as of tbe Vedas is held to 
be attended with other-worldly merit; the subject of these songs is 
God Siva and these songs were sung, played to by instruments and 
17 



66* THE JOHliNAL OF THE MADRAS MUSIC ACADEMY [VOL, XXIII 



danced to. They are called M&rga as Brahma is supposed to have 
sought them out (from Mrig— to search). The texts of some of these 
arefcund in the current text of the Natya Sastra itself ; Abhinava- 
gupta deals with them in his commentary on the Natya S a stra ; 
Nfinyadeva devotes much attention to them in bis Bharata Bhashya, 
and in the opening chapters of tLe Sangita Ratnakfora of Samgadeva, 
we find a number of them given with Svara- notation* 

Earlier than these Saivite songs of Ma>ga music, we had the 
singing of the Xkhyana rhapsodies, the epics* the Ramayana and the 
Mahilhharata. The Ramayana was sung to the Vina or lute by two 
minstrels in the Marga style in the seven modes of melody called the 
Jatia. When the seven notes were known, scales were formed from 
them, starting with three of them Gandhara, Madhyama, and Sbadja. 
The seven svaras or notes are named on some obscure basis, Shadja 
being called after its sis-fold source, Madhyama and Pauebama after 
their positions, Nishada also perhaps after its position, Risbabha pro- 
bably after a similar animal sound, GSndhara after a country or 
after the sheep which too were called so, and I>haivata after 
something we do not know at all. Of the primary scale 
formed from these, that starting with Ga was perhaps after & 
mode prevailing in the Gandhara country and if we realise that 
the word Gandhara is only a Prakrit variant of Gandharva, we have 
here a very fruitful line of further research on the Gandhara region 
being the contributor of the Gandharva music of ancient India- These 
parent groupings of svaras are called Gramas, the three respective 
groups being the Gandhara, Madhvama aad Shadja gramas. By the 
time of the Natya sistra and even earlier perhaps, the Ga-grafua went 
out of vogue. Further scales were derived from the possible transposi- 
tions of the seven svaras of ea«h of the two remaining Gramas of Sa 
and Ma, thm giving fourteen primary modes. These derived modes 
are called Jatis : earlier, in the time of the Ramayana, these Jatia were 
only seven, derived probably only from one Grama, viz., theGa, Both 
from the Vedic andtheepic literature, we know that music, of instru- 
ments as well as of recitals of akhyanas, was a feature of the Vedic 
sacrificial performances ; the Tanas of the different Gramas are named 
after different sacrifices ; and this sacrificial nomenclature has thus 
some historical significance. 

Bharata deals with music as an ancillary of his operatic theatre. 
Chapters 28 to 33 {Kasi edition) of his Natya Sastra are devoted to 
the science of music and to vocal and instrumental accompaniments. 
Bharata gives the fundamentals of Indian music in Ch. 28 ; mentions 



PARTS I. IV] AN OUTLINE LITE BABY HISTORY OF IKDJAK MUSIC 67 



the twenty-two srutis or microtonal intervals, an experimental 
method of deducting them and a demonstration of these on two 
Vinas j and eighteen Jatis, seven from each of the two Gr ft mfl|and 
fear mixed ones. As Bharata treats of music as an aid to drama, 4 
bespeaks of the appropriateness between certain situations and 
emotions and certain notes and melodies, and to this subject, the 
text of K&syapa, which AbhiuEtvagupta, Bharata 's commentator, 
quotes profusely, devotes extensive attention, in the musical fittings 
of the drama, a typ^ of song called Phruva, having numerous sub- 
varieties, played toe chief part ; it was of live main kinds, that of the 
Entrance (Pravesiki), of the Exit (Naisbkramiki), and three others 
occurring during the stay of the character on the stage- (Akshepiki, 
Aatara, and Prjifiadiki) which introduced a new idea or feeling and 
furthered the effect of the earn©. These songs were also of signifi* 
cance as giving an idea to the audienea of the whole context, place, 
person, etc. of a particular scene* as in Bhnrata's idealistic theatre, 
scenic trappings or elaborate stage direction? were dispensed with. 
Another point to be noted about these Dhruw-sooga is that 
they employ symbolical images, e.g., a hero's entry being 
suggested by describing an elephant entering a forest ; more 
noteworthy is the fact that the Dhrovas were originally in Prakrit, 
suggesting a popular origin ; it is only at a very late stage and id a 
few very stray cases, are there found Dhruv a s in Sanskrit (e.g., 
Anarghar&ghava of Murari). DhruvaS were mostly sung by the 
orchestra. Instrumental music, of both the stringed instruments 
and the drums, was also extensively harnessed for the dramatic 
effect, gaits of various persons in their different emotional states 
being accompanied by suitable instrumental background music. 
Besides the music of the play proper, Bbarata describes also the 
music of the dance called L ft sya in ten or twelve little isolated 
themes and the music of the Purvaranga or stage preliminaries, 
Purvaranga was either simple or elaborate, and, to suit the tempo 
of the coming drama, either delicate or vigorous. The main consti- 
tuents of these preliminary shows are a set of instrumental items and 
dances. The instrumental music here is called Nirgita, i.e., without 
song or understandable words, or BahirgiLa, i.e., external music, and 
is said to be dear to the Asuras. Bharata gives the sound syllables 
of this music, resembling the meaningless S a ma-etobhas or the 
Carnatic Sollu-k-kattus. The dances which figure here and which 
•PS part of the Taodava promulgated by Siva, are executed to the 

■The p reseat writer has a separate extensive paper entitled Music on 13b a - 
rnta's Stage. 



68 THE JOURKAL OF THE MADE AS MUSIC ACADEMT [VOL. XXHI 

accompaniment of certain music composition belonging to the 
Gsodharva or the MIrga type previously referred to. Some of these 
song^m positions mentioned by Bharatf are VardhaiBanaka, A^arita 
(or MargaBarita, referred by Sabaraev^min too in his Mimams a - 
bhashya), Chandaka, Gita, Hah a g|ta, Madraka, Magadhi, Ardha- 
niagadhi, Sambhavita, Prithula" (four kinds of Git is), Rk, Git ha, 
Sijnan, Panika, Aparantaka, Ullopya, Prakarj, Ovenaka and Dttara. 
The last seven are grouped together under a common name Saptampa 
or Saptanpja said to be derived from Hamaveda and yielding spiritual 
ment. The imperfect condition of the text of Bharata's work and 
Abhhiavagupta's commentary thereon hamper our full understanding 
of these ancient Marga-songs in Sanskrit. Through Nanyadeva's 
Bharata Bhashya and Sarngadeva's Sangitaratnakara we get clearer 
ideas of these. Derived from the J&tis are the melodic compositions 
calls Kapilas, numbering seven, of which again the libretto is as- 
cribed to Brahman himself and another class called Kambalas. 
Corresponding to these there are also t he rhythm-measures or Talaa 
of Marga music which are also given a divine origin, Cbacchatputa, 
Chachaputa etc. 

The next treatise of importance is the N*rsda Siksha. The most 
distinguishing feature of the music of India is its wealth of melodic 
forms created out of endless variations of the succession of svaras or 
notes, called Bsga by virtue of either their eolourfulneas or captivat- 
ing effect on the heart, But the concept of Kaga as sooh had not 
developed in Bharata's time. During the early stages there were the 
Jutis or the parent scales in which the compositions of those ages 
like the Ram ay ana and the Good bar va-gongs were sung. The instru- 
ments were also open at that time and the melodies changed by 
transposition of the notes and the shift of the key. Hence Gandharva 
is defined by Dattila as Avadhina or concentration and careful execu- 
tion involving s vara- trans positions. Later the increasing re a ligation 
of the starting, lingering and ending points in these melodic types led 
to greater analysis and the formulation of Ragas. The R&gas to 
begin with were few and besides the main Gr a ma Ragas of the two 
Grnmas of Shadja and Madhyama, the only other Ragas mentioned in 
the Ntirada Siksha are Shidava, a Raga taking only six notes, Pan eh a - 
ma, Sadharita, Kaisika and K&isikamadLyama* The Narad a Siksha 
quotes here Kasyapa, and from the Abhinavabharatrof Abhinavagupta 
we learn that Kasyapa's music work is of much value. 

The history of the Riga-music appears in its fullness in the 
Brihaddesi of Matanga, who expressly states that he deals with the 



PAHTS I 1Y] AN OUTLINE LITERARY HISTORY OF INDIAN MUSIC 69 

Raga-iBarga not dealt with by Bharata. These Ragas as distinct 
from the Marga which cannot, on the analogy of the Veda, be 
altered, are called Deai. permitted to vary in different parts in the 
country. As the first f»i»r treatise on the Desj Raga uiffcic, 
Matnnga's work is called Brihaddesi. An incomplete and imperfect 
manuscript of this was recovered and published from Trivandrum. 
Just aa the expressions Marga and I>esi are contrasted, GUndbarva is 
contrasted with the name Gnna. The Desi Ruga G a na is the next, 
the third, stage in the history of Indian Music. 

As the Ragas grew they were classified into Suddha and Bhinna 
and the Grpma Raga into Bbasha, Antara Bbasha, and Yibhasha on 
the linguistic analogy. The next stage of classification is into Raganga, 
Bhaabanga, Kriyanga and Upanga. In course of time the Ma-Grama 
too went out of vogue leaving as its survival the Madbyama-Grama- 
Raga, even as the Ga-Grama left leaving its survival in the Gandhara- 
Grama Raga referred to in the Harivamsa , and then Sa-Grama alone 
prevailed. 

A definitely datable but unfortunately difficult music material 
is a seventh century rock inscription of the Pallava King Mahendra- 
varman of Kanchi, at Kudimiyamalai in the Pudukottai State in 
South India which gives Svara-groupings for an enigmatic seven and 
eight on the lute called Pariv a dini. The puzzling seven refers perhapt 
to the seven Jatis and the eight perhaps to a new mixed .Tati created 
by the royal musician himself, for one of the well-known titles of 
this Elfig is SanL irtifijtdi, and these titles themselves were taken by 
the King after his respective achievements in the different depart- 
ments of arts and letters. 

Next comes a series of commentaries and expositions of the 
NStya Sastra of Bharata by Lollata, Udbhata, Sankuka, Kirtidhara, 
Abhinavagupta, and Nanyadeva. those of the last two alone being 
available now. At about the time of the last two, the royal polymath 
of Malva, Bhoja, a!60 produced a musical treatise. Besides the works 
of these, there were numerous others ascribed to names of sages and 
mythological figures, Yashtika. Durga, Sardula. Kohala, Visakhila, 
Dattila (recovered and published from Trivandrum), Kambala, 
Asvatara, Ravana, Nandikesvara, etc., some of which are early in- 
deed. Some of the Pur a nas too deal with music. Among historical 
persons Matrigupta mentioned in the Rajatarangini, Rudrata, the 
rhetorician, R a hula a Buddhist and King Someavara also are authors 
on music. Of all this literature we have an excellent epitome in the 
18 



70 TIER JOURNAL OF THE MADRAS MCT9IC ACADEMY [VOL. XXfll 



8ang>taratn&kara of Sarngadeva, Chief Accountant of King Soddhala 
(A. IX 1210*1247) of the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri, which has stood 
the^et of time and is today the only book looked into for an all* 
round knowledge of ancient music. An earlier work of importance 
ia represented by the music chapters of the Manasoll&sa or Abbilashi- 
Urtha Chintamani, an encyclopaedia compiled by the Chalukya King 
Somes vara of K a ]y an in A. D. 1181* A Jain work of merit is the 
SaDgita Samay a Sara of Parsvadev a probably of the 13th century 
itself f A number of commentaries on the Sang]ta Ratnafcara were 
then produced, chief among these being the works of two Telugu 
writers King Singabhupala fA. D, 14th cent,) and Chatura Kallinatba 
(A. D. 15th cent.) 

In the post-Ratnakara period, sometime after the mingling of 
the Hindu and Persian cultures in the North, there developed a 
schism in Indian Music and the two Schools of the North and the 
South— Hind usth an j and Oarnatic — came to be distinguished. The 
fundamentals and the basic texts of the two schools are the same, 
but differences in nomenclature of Srutis and Ragas, in the aesthetic 
of R7:ga-formation and in the employment of the subtler aspects like 
grace? cam© about. While the names of Bngaa are common to the two 
schools, their respective melodic contents came to differ. It may be said 
that to some extent the South preserved the purity of the old music 
and its school exhibited scientific trends in its further development- 
But it should not be held that there was no contact between the 
two schools; Gopala Kayak, a famous South Indian musician and 
composer, was taken to the North by Alanddin Khilji, (13th 
century) ; Pundanka Vitthala, a Carnatic musical author was patro- 
nised by Akbar's courtiers (16th century) ; when a Nepalese king 
wanted to compile his Sangita Chandra, he says, be called for a con- 
ference of scholars, from all parts of the country, and secured a 
valuable treatise from the South, even a3 Garuda secured nectar. 
Some of the very sweet Rag as of the Carnatic system came from the 
north ; an eminent South Indian composer like Muthosv a mi Dikflbitar 
lived in Banaras for some time and adopted some Hinduethani modes 
for 1j is creations. 

The North Indian Music books start with six Ragas as primary 
and classify other melodies in a domestic style into male and female, 

* The present writer has collated two mss* of the mosic portion of 
this work for a critical atudy and edition. 

t The text of thia work was badly printed from a single defective ma. 
in Trivandrana. The present writer is working «t an improved edition on 
the basis three mas. of the work. 



PARTS I-IV] AN OUTLINE LITEBARY B1STOBY OF MUSIC 7L 



husband and wife, and sons and daughters, kinship hi impression and 
emotional ethos being the criterion of such classification, Another 
peculiarity of the North Indian melodies is that each Rajga is 
pictuxised into a certain image, Megha as the Raining Cloud, Hindol 
as the swing of the lady sporting on it, and so on, which has given 
rise to the beautiful school of ftugamala miniature painting. A third 
characteristic is thai, while in the South, the relation between certain 
Ragas and certain parts of the day is emphasised only in a few cases, 
e.g. the Nilambaij for the night at sleeping time and Bhupala for 
sunrise, and is seldom observed as a rule, the North has roles of time to 
a greater extent, and what is more, observes pueh rules in practice too. 
The history of the South Indian musical literature dates clearly 
from the Vijayanagara period and hence perhaps is this school 
styled Carnatic. The Saint-singer of the period Purandara Dasa is 
considered to be the father of Carnatic Music. By his time we had 
already the Sangitasara ascribed to Vidy H ranya, the Sage-founder of 
the Vijayanagar kingdom. While the classification of the Ragas in 
the North was proceeding on lines of Raga-Raginjs and their issues, 
Carnatic Raga classification began with a scheme of Mela-Janya 
R&gas, parent and derivative melodies, Yidyaranya formulated 
fifteen Me las and described fifty Ragaa. AhobahVs Sangita Parijata, 
translated into Persian in A,D. 1724, is valuable as a work fixing 
Svaras in terms of the length of the wire in tension on the Vina, Two 
other productions of theTelugu country are the Svararaelaka 1 midhi 
of Rjimatnatya (A, D, 1550) which mentions the Sruti (drone) and 
the Ragavibodha of Soman B t ha (A.D. 1609). The centre of music 
activity then shifted to the N a yak and Ma h rat ha courts of Tanjore, 
and the high -water- mark of the Carnatic music even to day is the 
Tanjore style. During the reign of King Raghun tt fcha Naik of 
Tanjore (A.D, 16 14-32), his scholar minister Govinda Dikshita fixed 
the Carnatic Vin Ut naming it after his King and made it suitable for 
playing all the Ragas. This fixing of the frets of the Vina then marks 
a stage. Govinda Dikshita wrote a treatise on music called Sangita- 
sudba. His son, Venkatamakhin, the Mimamsaka, wrote a music 
treatise called the Caturdandiprak&sika during the time of Yijaya- 
raghava Naik (A.D. 1633-73), in which a system was worked out, on 
the basis of the twelve notes of the gamut, whereby all the possible 
Raga varieties, known and unknown, were brought under 72 major 
and parent modes called Mela- Ragas, their derivatives being called 
Janya-Ragas. Out of these, 19 parent modes were current in 
Yeokatamakhin's time For the characteristics of the R&gas known 
in his time, he resorted to a grand* preceptor of his, Tanappa, son of 



72 THE JOUKNAL OF THE MADRAS MUSIC ACADEMY [VOL. XX ID 

Honappa, who had left a legacy of detailed treatment of fifty Ragas, 
worked oat into sets of four compositions called CaturdandJ, Glta, 
Prabandha, Thaya, and Alapa. The next important Tanjore text i& 
the Sangitasaramrita of King Tulaja, a Mahratha ruler of Tanjore 
(A.D. 1729-35). The most valuable portion of his work is the detailed 
descriptions of the Rag as with citations from old Thiyae, Git as , etc* 
The three texts of Tanjore noticed above were quickly superceded by 
a rather irregularly written work called Sangraha Cudamani by 
Govinda f whose system is the one in vogue now. To Venkatamakhin, 
the author of the seventy -two mela scheme, it was not necessary that 
each parent mode should be a complete hepta tonic scale by ascent 
as well as descent ; Govinda took this to be a drawback and created 
wherever necessary new parent modes having completeness of avaraa 
thereby adding to the Ragas in existence. Some modem scholars 
find fault with the mela scheme orginated by Venkatamakbin, but 
some find it to be good and Mr. Bhatkhande to whom modern 
Hinduathani renaissance owes much, adopted 3t for classifying the 
North Indian melodies in his work called Laksbya Sangita. 

Many of the music works dealt with dance also. Some separate 
treatises also came to be written on a single department of muarc, 
Ragas, TtDas, or some instrument. 

Regarding music compositions in Sanskrit we noted that after 
the Samans, there arose the compositions of Marga or Gandharva 
music all of which were in praise of Siva. They were in imitation of 
Vedic music. Three of these compositions were actually called Rik, 
Gat ha and Saman. Many of the characteristics of Vedic music were 
transmitted to later music in a different form : Corresponding to the 
Stobhas of the Saman, developed the Akara and Tennakara of later 
music ; and the five parts of the Saman singing Prastava, Tdgitha, 
Pratibara, Upadrava and Nidhana, gave rise in later music to 
UdgraTia, An u dgraha, Sambodha. Dhruvaka, Abhoga, of which the 
first, fourth and fifth became the more important parts of a composi- 
tion. Matanga's work mentions a large number of compositions under 
Desi music. An idea of this class of compositions can be had from 
the Prabandha chapter (IV) of the Sangita RatnEkara. Sarngadeva 
says that Prabandha is also called Vaatu and Rupaka, and has four 
limbs Udgraha, Melapaka, Dhrnva and Abhoga* The six constituents 
of such a musical composition are Svara, Birudu, Pada, Tenaka, 
Pata and Tala, notes, praises and words, Te-Ne syllables used for 
melody, rhythmic syllables and time-measure. These com positions 
have sub- varieties, distinguished on different principles. Sarngadeva 



PA UTS I-IV] AT* OUTLINE LITERARY OISTOBY OF INDIAN MUSIC 73 



names thirty-two kinds of EKada compositions, some of these names 
being Ela, Jhombada, Rasa, Ekatali , Varna, Varnasvara, Gadya, Arya, 
Gltha, Dvipatha, Totaka, Vritta, Rasrakadambaka, Pancatalesvara, 
Talarnava, etc. ; some others called Alikrama and miscellaneous 
prabandhas (e.g., Tripadi, Oatushpadi, Shatpadi, Dandaka, Kanduka, 
Char chart, Paddad'i, Rahadi, DhavaJa, Qvt etc.) and another set called 
Chfivalaga or Salaga(Dhruva T Man th a etc). Some of these at least were 
popular and vernacular in origin and some others have close connec- 
tion with Prakrit prosody. 

OF Music com positions of another type we get a glimpse from 
the Abbinavabharat j where Abhinavagupta mentions that there was a 
composition called Ragakavya or a composition to be sung In a Raga 
and the instances are given of the poem Raghavavijaya to be sung 
in the Takka Raga and the Mancavadha in Kakubha Grama taga. 
Such poems recited musically were a continuation of a ancient 
Akhyana rhapsodies. In a later century (18th) we find a work of poet 
NaTayaua of Orissa, Sangita Sarani, citing many such musical poems 
compiled by himself and his father Purusottama. He calls poems 
BQirg in single rngas Sntraprabhandhas and those Qiing in different 
rag as, SuddhaprabandhaSi Ramacandrodaya, BaWamayana, Gundi- 
p a vijaya and Ramabhudaya are given in the later class and in the 
former are mentioned RalabhadTavijaya, Sankaravihara. Usavilasa, 
and Kriahnavilgsa. 

Th^ outstanding creation in the field of Sanskrit musical compo- 
sition is the Oita Govinda of Jayadeva (A.D. 12th cent) on the love 
of Radha and Krishna. This musical poem may be held to be the 
father of all later creations. In its poetry and the sheer music of the 
words and the litt of its lines, it is an unrivalled production. From 
the time of its composition, it has occupied a unique p!ace not only 
among votaries of devotional music but also many votaries of dance 
who favour its songs for gesticulation (abhinaya). The poem is in 
twelve cantos, each canto containing more than one song. The songs 
are called Ashtapadis referring to the eight feet in each of them with 
a refrain colled Dhruvapada. The text gives the R a ga and Tala of 
each song and among the many commentaries, that of King Kumbha- 
karna of Me war, author too of a music treatise called Sangita 
Mimamsaj devotes much attention to these Ragas and Talas- Each 
song is introduced and concluded with of beautiful verses and the 
entire form of the composition was so original and so attractive 
that numberless imitations of it arose. Its influence on later music 
composition can be felt even up to the time of Rabindranatb Tagore. 
19 



74 THE JOURNAL OF THE MADRAS MUSIC ACADEMY [VOL. XXIU 

So far as Carnatic music composition is concerned, Jayadeva inspired 
Nurayana Tlrtha or" South India, a Telugu Sannyasin who retired in 
the Tanjore District, in the 18th century, to produce his fuller opera 
of the sports of Krisnna called the Krishna Lilatarangini. Sadu-siva 
Brahmendra an Advaitic writer and Avadhuta of Tanjore District 
(A. IX 18th century) composed some Vedantic and devotional Sans* 
krit songs. The most important Sanskrit composer in the field of 
Carnatic music is Muttuswami Diksitarof Tiruvaror (AJX 1775-1835) 
whose numerous and learned compositions, bringing out the entire 
forms of the Ragas, form one of the reservoirs of Carnatic music 
today, lu^a" playful mood he imitated also some of European Band 
tunes heard at Tanjore, including the British National Anthem, 
Next to him comes the more prolific royal composer of Tra-rancore, 
King Sviti Tirunil Kuma Varma (1812-1847). The more famous 
contemporary, Tyagaraja, who composed mostly in Tehigu , produced 
a good number of Sanskrit songs too. The South Indian music 
composition has three limbs, the Pallavi corresponding to Dhrova- 
pada, Anupallavi and Carana, taking off in an essential and attrac- 
tive point of a R a ga and then elaborating it slightly and then more 
fully. Many of these composers were great devotees of God and 
mystics, and in fact, to them there was little distinction between 
devotion and art ; the Bhakti movement in the mediaeval and later 
times gave an impetus to song-compositions all over the country, 
but the affiliation of the art of music to spiritual pursuit is an idea 
valued in India from most remote times. Sage Yajnavalkya con- 
sidered it as a means of salvation and indeed musical sound itself is 
adored as Nada-Brahmam. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Early and Later Sanskrit Sangrita Literature : Dr. V. Raghavao, 
Journal of the Madras Music Academy. St rang ways : Music of 
Hinduathan. Rev. Popley i Music of India, Vaidya : History of 
Sanskrit Literature. Van Der Hoogt : Vedic Chant studied in its 
Textual Melodic Form, Bharata's Natya Sastra ; Abhinavagupta's 
commentaryion the Natya SaStra : The NSradiya Siksha ; TheSangita- 
ratnakara of Sirngadeva. G* H. Ranade : Physics and Aesthetics of 
Bmdustbani Music, Sj stems of Music by Bhatkhande. Texts and 
Journals published by the Madras Music Academy.